Carpentry

fiber board Carpentry

Product

A term regarding sheet material of various densities. The material is made from vegetable fibers such as cane or wood.

acajou Carpentry

General

Acajou is a term used from time to time to replace the word mahogany.  

acoustical materials Carpentry

Product

Kinds of material - such as plaster and tile - absorb sound waves. Acoustical materials are often placed over interior wall surfaces in order to prevent reverberation of the sound waves.

adhesive Carpentry

Product

A kind of substance having the ability to keep material joined through surface attachment. Glue, mastic, and paste are all types of adhesives.

adze Carpentry

Equipment
A tool with a handle at right angles with the blade; it is used for roughing something out. 

 

air conditioning Carpentry

General
A system that controls the temperature, movement, humidity and the cleanliness of the air.

air dried Carpentry

Technical
Wood that is exposed to the air without artificial heat.

air-entraining agents Carpentry

Product
Chemicals added to enhance the functionality and freeze-thaw strength of mortar over a period of time.

alteration Carpentry

General
The changes that occur within a building's structure or mechanical equipment that maintains the cubic content of the building.

amaranth, purpleheart Carpentry

General

Amaranth (also known as purpleheart) is a type of purplish hardwood that comes from trees growing in the Guianas.  It contains a tight texture and pleasing, varied grain.  The term amaranth may also refer to the purple dyestuff created from the wood; however, paint pigments created from it are not stable in the sunlight.  

anchor bolts Carpentry

Product
The bolts inserted into concrete that keep the structural members together.

anchor straps Carpentry

Product
The strap fastener that is inserted into masonry walls or concrete to keep sills from moving around.

annual rings Carpentry

General
The rings or wood layers that indicate one growth period of a particular tree. The rings represent the age of the tree at the cross section.

apron Carpentry

General
A section of horizontal trim that is placed upon the awll under the stool. Apron covers the raw edge of plaster.

areaway Carpentry

General
An open area surrounding a door or basement window. It allows for ventilation, access and light.

asphalt Carpentry

Product
A substance created from evaporated petroleum. It is soluble in gasoline and becomes a liquid when heated. It is insoluble in water and can be used as a waterproof covering.

astragal Carpentry

Product
A kind of interior molding that is joined to a window sash or pair of doors to stop them from going in and out.

backband Carpentry

Product
A thin rabbeted molding that is placted on the outer corner and edge of door casing and interior windows in order to create the effect of a thick trim appearance.

backfill Carpentry

Technical
Putting earth back around foundations at the completion of an excavation.

backing board Carpentry

Product
The base panel of gypsum drywall that showcases a gray liner paper on top. It is used in a two-layer drywall system and cannot be used as a top surface.

balloon framing Carpentry

Technical
A kind of building construction that has standing studs that originate from the foundation sill and extend to the rafter plate.

baluster Carpentry

Product
A structure member that holds a stair rail that is turned and/or square spindle-like in appearance.

balustrade Carpentry

Product
A structure that holds a hand rail or continuous stair; its railing is constructed from a number of balusters that stand on a base such as treads.

Bamboo Carpentry

General

A type of grass that takes on the characteristics of wood over an extended amount of time.

base shoe Carpentry

Product
Narrow molding placed along the perimeter of a room at the intersection of the finish floor and the baseboard.

basement Carpentry

General
The bottom of a house that is either in the ground or partially in the ground.

batten Carpentry

Product
A section of wood that is used on a surface to hide joints.

batter Carpentry

General
The inclination of a structure - such as a wall - from the vertical position.

batter board Carpentry

Product
A temporary structure utilized to locate corners as the foundation base is constructed.

bay Carpentry

General
One of the various intervals that the building plan is sectioned into, including piers, division walls or columns.

bay window Carpentry

Product
A type of window or windows that rests beyond the main wall of the foundation.

beam Carpentry

Product
A main building member that is placed between columns, walls and posts.

bearing partition Carpentry

General
A partition that withholds its own weight as well as an upright load.

bearing wall Carpentry

General
A wall that upholds an upright load along with its own weight.

bed molding Carpentry

Product
A molding that is placed at the intersection of two surfaces. Often used in cornice trim.

bedding Carpentry

Product
A filing - such as putty or mortar - that holds together a firm bearing.

bench mark Carpentry

General
A mark on a fixed object on the ground that elevations and land measurements are created from.

bevel Carpentry

General
An angle (other than 90 degrees) that is cut on the edge of an object.

bevel siding Carpentry

General
A type of finish covering placed on the outside of a structure.

bid Carpentry

General
An offer to complete a job or supply materials/equipment at a certain price.

Bird's Eye Carpentry

General

Formations of waves and circles on wood that appear to be a bird's eye. 

bird's mouth Carpentry

General
A notch cut at the bottom of a rafter to in order to place it correctly to the top plate.

blemish Carpentry

General
A defect that takes away from the quality of a piece of wood.

blind nailing Carpentry

Technical
Pertaining to tongue-and-groove flooring in which nails are inserted at a 45 degree angle to the subfloor and placed at the origin of the tongue where they cannot be seen.

blind stop Carpentry

General
A structure member placed on the outside edge of the head and side jamb of a window in order to create a stop for the top sash. It also forms a rabbet for storm sash, blinds, shutters and screens.

Blockboard Carpentry

General

Blocks of solid wood that have been adhered between veneers.

blue stain Carpentry

General
A stain resulting from fungus growth in unseasoned lumber - such as pine. The strength of the wood is unaffected.

board Carpentry

Product
Lumber that does not exceed two inches in thickness.

board foot Carpentry

General
The measurement of a board that is one inch thick and one foot square.

Bookmatching Carpentry

Technical

Wood veneer sheets that are positioned to create a symmetrical effect.

bosting Carpentry

Technical
A term applied to the rough shaping out of a design.  

 

bracket Carpentry

Product
An extending suport for a structure - such as a shelf.

brick construction Carpentry

Technical
A kind of construction in which the outside walls are bearing walls created from brick.

brick molding Carpentry

Product
A kind of molding for outside door frames and windows that acts as the edge molding for siding material. It creates a rabbet for combination door, screens and/or storm sash.

brick veneer construction Carpentry

Product
A kind of construction of a wood-frame structure which has an outside surface made up of single brick.

bridging Carpentry

Technical
Sections placed in pairs originating from the bootm of one floor joist to the adjacent joists on top. They are crossed to balance the floor weight.

buff Carpentry

Technical
A word referring to polishing through the rubbing of a cloth over and over the surface of something.  The word may also be used to  refer to an electrical machine that polishes wood or metal; it contains a fabric wheel at each end.  

 

built-up roof Carpentry

General
A type of roofing that is made out of many layers of rag felt or jute mixed with pitch, coal tar or asphalt. The upper layer is completed with gravel or crushed slag. Usually placed on low-pitched or flat roofs.

butt Carpentry

General
A kind of door hinge. A leaf is placed into an area that is routed on the door frame jamb. The second is inserted in the door edge.

cabinet Carpentry

Product
A case that is made out of doors, drawers and shelves. It is mainly used to store objects.

cabinet drawer guide Carpentry

Product
A piece of wood that guides a drawer as it moves either in or out of the opening.

cabinet drawer kicker Carpentry

Product
A wood cabinet member that stops the drawer from angling downward when it is opened. It is placed at the center of the drawer in most cases.

caliper Carpentry

Equipment

A two-legged tool useful for switching over measurements.  

camber Carpentry

General
A small arch of a beam or another horizontal structural member that stops any bending resulting from weight pressure.

Cane Carpentry

General

A multi-purpose and long-wearing climbing palm that thrives in the subtropics and tropics. 

cant strip Carpentry

Product
A section of wood shaped like a triangle; it is placed underneath the edges of roofing on flat decks or underneath shingles at gable ends.

cased opening Carpentry

General
The inner opening of a structure that is finished with trim or jambs.

casein glue Carpentry

Product
A type of adhesive made out of hydrated lime and casein. It is often used to laminate wood that contains a lot of moisture or for keeping oily wood pieces together.

casement Carpentry

Product
A type of window with a sash that can swing inwardly and outwardly because it sits on an upright edge.

casing Carpentry

Product
The finished edging surrounding a window or door; it can also be the completed lumber surrounding a beam or post.

caulk Carpentry

Product
The action of waterproofing and sealing the joints and cracks around an area - such as around door frames or window edges.

chair rail Carpentry

Product
The inside molding placed along the perimeter of a wall in a room to stop a chair from bruising a wall.

chamfer Carpentry

General
A corner containing a 45 degree angle bevel of a board.

chase Carpentry

General
A wood structure that extends from an exterior wall that witholds a prefabricated chimney.

check Carpentry

General
A split/crack that may happen inside a log; the split moves radially from the core to the bark due to fast drying. 

 

check rails Carpentry

General
The intersection of rails of a double-hung window. The rails are purposely created thicker in order to fill up the space in the middle of the bottom and top sash.

chisel Carpentry

Equipment
A tool used by carpenters for single-bevelling.   

 

chordal distance Carpentry

General

The distance between two points located on a curve; the measure of the distance circling the curve is longer than the chordal distance 

cleat Carpentry

General
A section of wood appllied over a door to increase its strength. It is also a section of wood applied to a wall to uphold objects - such as a fixture or shelf.

closet pole Carpentry

Product
A rounded molding inserted in closets to allow for clothes hangers.

collar beam Carpentry

General
A tie beam joining rafters high above the wall plate. Also known as a rafter tie.

column Carpentry

Product
A vertical support structure that is either rectangular or circular in its shape.

commerical standard Carpentry

General
A standard that fosters fair competition amongst companies. The standard creates for items such as certification, methods of testing, quality control and a rating system of manufactured products.

conductors Carpentry

General
The pipes that guide water flow from a roof to the ground or to a drain. Also known as a downspout.

conduit, electrical Carpentry

General
A tube in which wiring is inserted.

contact cement Carpentry

Product
A neoprene rubber-based adhesive that joins objects together immediately upon contact.

convenience outlet Carpentry

Product
An electrical outlet that portable equipment can be plugged into.

cope Carpentry

General
To form the end of a molded wood piece so it can be placed over the outside edge of another piece of molding.

corbel out Carpentry

Technical
To reach outwardly from a surface of a masonry wall a number of courses in order to create a supporting ledge.

Cork Carpentry

Product

Cork is taken from the bark of the evergreen cork tree.  To prepare cork, the bark of the tree is first granulated, and then combined with resins.  It is then pressed and baked into sheet form or tile.  Most of the world's cork comes from Portugal.

corner bead Carpentry

Product
A type of molding that is created to shield corners. It is also a metal strengthener that is put on corners prior to plastering.

corner braces Carpentry

Product

Crossing braces inserted into studs to strengthen corners of the structure of frames.

cornice Carpentry

General
The outside edge of a structure at the place of intersection of a roof and wall. It often is made up of boards, moldings and panels.

counterflashing Carpentry

Product
Flashing placed on chimneys in order to shield the roof-line from shingle flashing and protect it from moisture build-up.

cove molding Carpentry

Product
A concave molding often placed where two pieces intersect at a right angle.

cripple jack Carpentry

General
Also known as a cripple rafter. A type of rafter that finishes each end with valley and hip rafters. The rafter does not meet at either the ridge or the plate edges.

cripple stud Carpentry

General
A type of stud that is placed over a wall opening. It elongates from the header over the opening to a top late. It may also be placed under a wall opening in the middle of a rough sill and sole plate.

cupola Carpentry

General
A type of structure containing four sides and vents that is placed on top of a roof. A cupola enhances a structure and encourages ventilation.

curtain wall Carpentry

General
A type of wall that is placed in the middle of columns or piers and is usually nonbearing.

dado Carpentry

General
A groove cut in a wood section over the grain.

dead bolt Carpentry

Product
Also known as a dead lock. A door security system that is made up of a lock and solid steel bolt. The lock is opened by a key inserted from the outside or inside. A handle can open the lock from the inside.

dead load Carpentry

General
The weight of the construction making up a building.

decay Carpentry

General
The decay of wood resulting from fungi.

degree day Carpentry

General
A system of measuring the climate in regards to heating methods and insulation. One day multiplied by the number of degrees the mean temperature is under 65 degrees F equals one degree day.

dimension lumber Carpentry

Product
Lumber that measures up to 12 inches in width and 2 - 5 inches in thickness.

dimensional stability Carpentry

General
The capability of a material to withstand alterations of its measurements in regard to moisture, temperature and physical pressure.

direct gain system Carpentry

Technical
An inert solar construction that allows the sun to heat a room.

door frame Carpentry

General
A structure made out of wood sections to form a support for a door. A door frame may be characterized as interior or exterior.

door stop Carpentry

General
A molding attached to a door frame jambs to stop the door from swinging either in or out.

dormer Carpentry

General
An extending structure formed from an inclining roof. It often contains a number of windows.

drip cap Carpentry

Product
A molding that guides water from a structure to stop seepage underneath the outside material. It is usually put over outside door and window frames.

drip groove Carpentry

General
A groove on the bottom side of a drip cap or window lip sill that stops water from flowing back underneath a member.

drop siding Carpentry

General
A siding that is formed into different kinds of patterns. It contains tongue and groove or shiplap joints.

dry rot Carpentry

General
A term regarding kinds of decay. Often refers to the advanced stage of wood decay in which wood can be reduced to a dry powder.

drywall Carpentry

Product
Sheet materials for wall surfaces that do not require a water additive before use.

eased edge Carpentry

General
A corner that is slightly curved.

eaves Carpentry

General
The lower section of a roof that extends over an outer wall. Also known as an overhang.

electric moisture meter Carpentry

Equipment
A meter utilized to figure out the content of moisture within a piece of wood.

elevation Carpentry

General
How high an object rests above grade level. Or, a kind of drawing that visualizes the sides, front and back of a building structure.

equilibrium moisture content Carpentry

General
The content of moisture that a piece of wood remains stable in its moisture content when placed in an environment containing a certain temperature and humidity.

escutcheon Carpentry

Product
A kind of guarding plate that includes a key hole.

expansion joint Carpentry

General
A type of bituminous fiber strip that is utilized to divide units of concrete to keep it from cracking because of measurement changes. The changes may result from changes in temperature or shrinkage.

fašade Carpentry

General
A building's front elevation.

face nail Carpentry

General
A nail inserted at a 90 degree angle to the top surface of an object.

factory and shop lumber Carpentry

Product
The lumber that will be used for future manufacturing processes.

fascia Carpentry

Product
Wood placed on the exterior surface of a box cornice which is attached to the ends of the rafters and lookouts with nails.

fenestration Carpentry

General
The organization and sizing of exterior doors and windows to a building.

fiber saturation point Carpentry

General
The point at which the cell walls are full and the cell cavities contain no water in the drying or wetting of wood.

fire stop Carpentry

General
A block inserted between studs within a wall to stop the dispersion of fire or smoke in the air.

fire wall Carpentry

General
A wall that separates a building into smaller spaces to prevent fire from traveling.

flashing Carpentry

General
Material - such as sheet metal - utilized in wall or roof construction to prevent water leakage.

flat roof Carpentry

General
A level roof.

flue Carpentry

Product
The passage/passages in a chimney that gas or fumes escape through.

flush Carpentry

General
Refers to when two pieces are level or line up evenly together.

footing Carpentry

General
The extension of course/courses at the base of a pier, column or foundation wall.

foundation Carpentry

General
The supporting base of a structure that rests under the first-floor of a building.

framing Carpentry

General
The wooden structure of a building that adds strength and shape, such as a ceiling or exterior door.

frieze Carpentry

General
A boxed cornice wood trim structure member that is placed at the intersection of the wall and the soffit.

fruitwood, apple wood, plum wood Carpentry

General

Fruitwood is a term used by businesses in regards to woods of different fruit trees, such as plum and apple.  Pear and apple woods are favored as carving woods because they are stable, permanent and soft.  Moreover, their textures are consistent and not rough to the touch.  The colors of fruitwood can vary from yellowish red to a carmel yellow.  

furring Carpentry

General
Furring is utilized to create air space in the middle of surfaces, to level surfaces and to enhance the visual look of a base by making it appear thicker than it really is. Skinny strips of wood are placed at intervals to create a nailing foundation for a second surface.

gable Carpentry

General
Refers to a section of a wall that is placed in the middle of the inclination of a single-sloped roof and the line extending perpendicular from the ground past the shortest point of the roof structure.

gain Carpentry

General
A notch cut to permit the attachment of other hardware or another member.

gambrel roof Carpentry

General
A type of sloped roof. The top of the triangular roof appears to be taken off and on it is inserted an inclined roof that showcases a ridge at its middle with a peak.

girder Carpentry

General
A main beam that upholds heavy loads at certain intervals along its length.

glazing Carpentry

Technical
The technique of placing glass into doors and sash. The term also relates to placing glass panes into different kinds of frames.

glazing compound Carpentry

Product
A soft and rubbery substance made of plastic used in glazing sash and doors.

glue block Carpentry

General
A block of wood that enhances a right-angle butt joint; it is often placed in the middle of a tread and riser in stairs. The block is glued into place.

grade beam Carpentry

General
A reinforced section of a slab base that is made to sit on supporting piling.

ground Carpentry

General
A section of wood that helps a plasterer create a straight wall and create an area that the finish of a room can be attached to.

ground fault interrupter Carpentry

Product
Electrical safety mechanism that is placed in an outlet or electrical circuit. It senses a short circuit and turns off power on its own. It is used as a preventative measure to guard against electrical shock.

grounding Carpentry

Technical
A system for electrical protection that involves an electrical wire placed along the metal of a power tool to a third prong located on the power plug. The wire guides damaging currents away from the operator when it is paired with a grounded receptacle.

grout Carpentry

Product
A type of thin mortar. It is used in masonry work.

gusset Carpentry

General
A panel of a material such as metal or wood that is joined to the edges of a frame to enhance its strength and firmness.

gutter Carpentry

Product
A trough - made of metal, plastic or wood - that is placed in the edge of a roof to guide water flow.

gypsum wallboard Carpentry

Product
Wall surfacing panels that include a gypsum center covered on the top and back with paper.

half story Carpentry

General
A section of a building that is placed within a roof frame totally or partially and designed for occupancy.

Hardboard Carpentry

Product

A type of board material made out of wood fiber. It is created into panels that have a density of 50 to 80 lb. per cubit feet.  The bits of wood are adhered together through pressure and heat (as opposed to resin and glue.  Frequently one side of a hardboard is rough and the other side is smooth. 

Hardwood Carpentry

General

A group of various evergreen or deciduous trees that thrive in tropical or temperate regions. 

header Carpentry

General
A structural member perpendicular to the ground that upholds the weight on an opening - such as a window. Also known as a lintel.

headroom Carpentry

General
The open area in the middle of a ceiling and floor line, such as a stairway.

heartwood Carpentry

General
The wood originating from the middle of a tree to the sapwood. These tree cells no longer play a role in the growth of the tree.

heat transmission coefficient Carpentry

General
The rate per hour of the heat traveling from one square foot of surface. It occurs with a temperature change of one degree F in the atmosphere surrounding the surface's sides.

hip roof Carpentry

General
A roof that extends from all the sides of a building structure.

hollow core door Carpentry

Product
A flush door made from a core assembly of units that hold up the outer faces.

hollow-back Carpentry

General
Taking out a section of wood on the surface of a member not seen by the public. This is done to accommodate for any defects in bearing surface.

horn Carpentry

General
A jamb, sill or stile extension.

hose bib Carpentry

General
Also known as a sill cock. A threaded water faucet that is joined to a hose connection.

I beam Carpentry

Product
A beam made of steel containing a cross section with the appearance of the letter I.

in-the-white Carpentry

General
Unpainted or natural.

incinerator Carpentry

Equipment
A tool that rids a household of its waste by burning it.

indirect gain system Carpentry

General
An inert solar construction that holds solar heat within a structure. It then transfers the heat to a living space by the processes of convection, conduction or radiation.

insulation Carpentry

Product
A material inserted in structures to lower the rate at which heat is transferred.

interior trim Carpentry

General
A term that encompasses all the items put into a building by finish carpenters - such baseboard, casing, and molding.

isolated gain system Carpentry

General
An inert solar construction that stores solar generated heat in a space compartment. This heat is later transferred to a living space mechanically.

jack rafter Carpentry

General
A valley or hip rafter and ridge board. Also, a rafter framing in the middle of the wall plate and a hip rafter.

jalousie Carpentry

Product
A number of glass slats that overlap. They are joined by a metal frame connected to a window frame side jambs or door stiles and rails.

jamb Carpentry

General
The sides and top of a window or door frame that touch the sash or door.

jig Carpentry

General
A tool that arranges material for correct assembly or cutting. Factories use jigs to create prefabricated components for buildings.

joinery Carpentry

General
Relating to the many kinds of joints functioning within a structure.

joist Carpentry

General
One of the many parallel framing members that hold the weight of floors and ceiling loads. It is itself upheld by items such as girders or bigger beams.

kerfing Carpentry

Technical
Saw cuts or grooves of different widths that prevent pressure and warping on surfaces of millwork members that are not seen by the public.

kiln dried Carpentry

General
Seasoned wood from a kiln.

knocked down Carpentry

General
Not assembled.

knot Carpentry

General
A limb or branch within a tree which is sliced through during the process of lumber manufacturing.

kraft paper Carpentry

Product
A brown building paper that is durable and does not easily puncture.

lally column Carpentry

General
A steel member in a cylindrical shape that holds girders and beams in place. Often concrete is poured into lally columns.

Laminates Carpentry

Product

Veneer or wood thin sheets that are adhered onto substrate.

lath Carpentry

Product
A material for buildings that attaches to the frame of a building. It acts as a plaster base.

lazy susan Carpentry

Product
A cabinet shelf that revolves; it is usually placed in the unit of a corner kitchen cabinet.

leader Carpentry

General
An upright pipe that transfers water from a gutter to a drainage system or the ground. Also known as a downspout.

ledger Carpentry

General
A section joined to an upright frame or structural member that holds types of horizontal framing - such as joists. Related to a ribbon strip.

let in Carpentry

General
Relating to a type of notch in a joist, block, stud or another section that secures a secondary piece.

level-transit Carpentry

Equipment
A tool used to survey the plumb of walls in structures that are new.

light construction Carpentry

General
The construction that refers to standard rafters, wood stud walls, and floor and ceiling joists. This type of construction mostly refers to residential buildings.

Limed/Liming Carpentry

Technical

A process that lightens the grain of wood by softening the appearance of timber.

lineal foot Carpentry

General
Referring to a length measurement only.

lintel Carpentry

General
A structural member perpendicular to the ground that holds a load over an opening within a structure - such as a window.

live load Carpentry

General
The sum total of all the loads that a building can withstand.

lock block Carpentry

General
A block of wood that is attached to the inner edge of the stile of a hollow core door. A lock is fitted to this block.

lookout Carpentry

General
A structural member placed in the middle of the exterior wall and bottom end of a rafter. It functions as a means to hold the underside of the overhang. Also known as soffit or plancier.

lumber Carpentry

Product
Referring to the product created by the saw and planing mill. Lumber is not manufactured past the processes of sawing, resawing, going through a standard planing machine and being crosscut to length.

major module Carpentry

General
A unit of measurement; this measurement is used in modular construction. A major module is 1200 mm long in the SI metric system. 48 inches is the length of a major module in the conventional system of units.

mansard roof Carpentry

General
A kind of curb roof. The pitch in the top section of an inclining side is small; the bottom section is steeper. The bottom section often includes dormer windows.

masonry Carpentry

Product
Materials that are joined together using mortar in order to create a structure such as a pier or wall. Examples of these materials include brick, concrete block, or stone.

matched lumber Carpentry

Product
Lumber that contains edges which are formed to create a close tongue-and-groove joint at the ends. This term also refers to lumber that contains rabbeted edges.

MDF Carpentry

Product

Medium-density fiberboard created from wood particles adhered together with resin.

mechanical core Carpentry

General
A building module that holds items such as heating, ventilating, electrical, air conditioning, and plumbing. It is put together at the building site.

mechanical equipment Carpentry

General
The kinds of equipment that are classified under the headings of heating, air conditioning, plumbing, electrical work and gasfitting.

medallion Carpentry

Product
A decorative object with a raised surface.

meeting rail Carpentry

General
Also known as a check rail. In a double-hung window a meeting rail is the top rail of the lower sash, and the bottom rail of the upper sash.

millwork Carpentry

Product
Items that are primarily made from lumber at a planing mill. Examples of these items are doors, stairwork, mantels and cabinets.

minor module Carpentry

General
A measurement unit used in modular construction. A minor module is 600mm long in the SI metric system. And a minor module is 24 inches in the conventional system of units.

modular coordination Carpentry

General
The sizing of a building structure along with the building materials taken from a module - a common unit of measurement.

moisture content Carpentry

General
The measurement of water a piece of wood contains. Moisture content is given as the percentage of the weight of wood that has been oven-dried.

molding Carpentry

Product
A section of usually curved wood that functions as a decorative piece as well as a covering for angle joints and surfaces.

monolithic Carpentry

Product
A one unit piece of concrete that has been poured and is without joints.

moulder Carpentry

Equipment
A machine for woodworking that creates moldings with regular or irregular profiles. Also known as a sticker.

mr (moisture resistant) wallboard Carpentry

Product
A kind of gypsum wallboard that has been manufactured to withstand moisture and high humidity infiltration. Showers and tub alcoves are examples of places where it is regularly used.

mullion Carpentry

Product
A thin pier that makes a divide in the middle of window units or other types of frames that are not related to the structure of the building.

muntin Carpentry

Product
An upright member that is placed in the middle of two panels of the same section of panel work. Glass panels are divided through the use of the horizontal and vertical sashbars.

net floor area Carpentry

General
The floor area minus the floor openings such as of columns, stairs, and room dividers.

newel Carpentry

General
A foundational post at the beginning of the stairs and the stiffening post at the bottom of the stairs.

nominal size Carpentry

General

The standard commercial dimensions that a piece of timber or lumber is known and purchased at.

nonbearing partition Carpentry

General
A division that begins from the floor and goes to the ceiling that upholds only its own weight.

nosing Carpentry

General
The section of the stair tread that extends over the riser or other kinds of extensions. Nosing refers to the edge of a board that is rounded.

on center Carpentry

General
A technique that guides the placement of framing members at set intervals by givng the measurement from the middle of one member to the middle of the next member.

open-grain wood Carpentry

General
Types of woods, such as chestnut or ash, that contain large pores.

oriel window Carpentry

General
A window that extends from the base line of an enclosed wall in a structure that is upheld on corbels, cantilever, or brackets.

oriented strand board Carpentry

Product
A panel created from layers of compressed particles organized at angles perpendicular to each other.

parapet Carpentry

General
The section of a wall or railing that projects over a roof, a balcony or bridge.

pargeting Carpentry

General
A layer of plaster put over brick or stone to create a desired surface, such as a smooth or embellished surface.

particleboard Carpentry

Product
A panel made up of wood flakes or shavings that are joined together with a binder, such as a synthetic resin.

partition Carpentry

General
A wall that divides an area within a building.

party wall Carpentry

General
A wall shared by two people or groups under easement agreement. The wall is placed on a line that divides the two sections of land which is often controlled by two separate parties.

passive solar construction Carpentry

General
Masonry, glass or wood structures that store and move energy from the sun.

penny Carpentry

General
A unit of measurement that applies to casing, finishing, common, and box nails. The abbreviation letter d is used to indicate the measurement of the nail length.

phase-change materials Carpentry

General
A material that transforms from a solid to eventually gaseous state that allows for storage of high levels of energy.

photosynthesis Carpentry

Technical
The method by which plants store the sun's energy. Sunlight is changed into carbon dioxide and water by trees to create wood and leaves.

pier Carpentry

General
A masonry column that functions as a support for other structural members in a building.

pilaster Carpentry

General
A section of a wall that extends up to half of its width past the exterior or interior surface of a wall. A pilaster may be used solely for decorative purposes, but is most often a means of supporting weight in a structure.

pile Carpentry

General
A member that is created from concrete, metal or timber that is cast or heavily forced into the ground in order to be the main support for future structural members.

pitch Carpentry

General
An incline; a rise separated by the span. Examples include stairs or roofs.

plan Carpentry

General
A drawing that visualizes a floor of a building or other horizontal plane areas.

plancier Carpentry

General
The bottom side of a cornice or eave.

plaster Carpentry

General
The combination of cement, sand, and lime that is applied to the exterior and interior of a wall face as a kind of surface covering.

plat Carpentry

General
A visual representation of a location to determine the location and edges of properties.

plate Carpentry

General
A base member of a division. Also, a member put on a wall or placed on studs, corbels or posts. A plate either carries the rafters directly or carries the trusses of a roof.

platform framing Carpentry

Technical

usual method of building that limits all stud height to only one floor (unlike balloon framing)

plot plan Carpentry

General
The building site as seen from the top. Also known as a site plan. The distance from property lines to a building structures are visible.

plumb Carpentry

General
Being vertical. Being perpendicular to the ground.

plumbing Carpentry

Technical
Installing items such as fixtures and pipes to conduct water and wastes in or out of an area. Plumbing also refers to the installed pipes and fixtures in a structure.

plumbing stack Carpentry

General
Referring to the upright main of the waste, vent piping or soil system.

plunge cutting Carpentry

Technical
A technique of cutting that creates a beginning hole for the insertion of a saber saw. The blade is held flush with the surface of the wood. As the saw is angled to the standard position the cut is finished.

polystyrene panels Carpentry

Product
A stiff insulation that is created from beads of plastic that expand.

polyvinyl resin emulsion glue Carpentry

Product
Interior wood glue. It is created from polyvinyl acetates that cannot be used in temperatures over 165 degrees F.

portico Carpentry

General
A porch that is made up of a roof that is held up by a row of columns.

prefabricated construction Carpentry

Technical
A kind of construction that contains a low level of assembly at the building site. A number of big units that are made at a plant are used.

preservative (carpentry) Carpentry

Product

A material that stops fungi, borers and insects from deteriorating wood.

purlins Carpentry

General
Roof members positioned horizontally that function as a means to uphold rafters in the middle of the ridge board and plate.

push stick Carpentry

General
A pole that pushes along a piece as one is cutting. A push stick is used for safety reaons when using power tools.

quarter round Carpentry

Product
A molding that features a cross section 1/4 the size of a cylinder.

quarter-sawed Carpentry

General
Lumber cut at around 90 degrees in relation to the annular growth rings.

quit-claim deed Carpentry

General
A deed that gives a grantee the interest he/she legally owns in a property without the inclusion of a warranty.

r value Carpentry

General
A number that gives the information on how efficient an insulating material is. Examples of insulating materials include foam or fiberglass batting.

rabbet Carpentry

General
A shape cut along the perimeter or end of a board.

rafter Carpentry

General
One of a number of roof members that is created to uphold roof loads. A flat roof contains rafters that are often called roof joists.

rail Carpentry

General
An assembly such as a door or blind that contains horizontal or cross members in its framework.

rake Carpentry

General
The trim members that follow along the roof incline and create the finish in the middle of the roof and wall at a gable end.

ramp Carpentry

General
A sloped plane joining different levels.

rat slab Carpentry

General

a concrete layer spread over the ground surface in a crawl space

Reclaimed/Antiqued Carpentry

General

Wood boards that have been salvaged in order to create something new. 

reinforced concrete construction Carpentry

Technical
A kind of construction that involves main structural members created out of poured concrete surrounding steel meashwork or bars. The members work as a resist force from added pressure.

relative humidity Carpentry

General
The proportion of water vapor in the atmosphere in relation to the percentage to the sum total it is capable of holding at an equal temperature.

resilient Carpentry

General
The ability of a material to maintain its original shape under outside stresses forced upon it.

retaining wall Carpentry

General
A wall that is acted upon by lateral pressure from sources other than the wind.

ribbon Carpentry

General
A board joined to an upright member of a frame that gives strength to joists and other members positioned horizontally.

ridge beam Carpentry

Technical

a structural beam where the rafter tops meet

ridge board Carpentry

Technical

a nonstructural board where the rafter tops meet

riser Carpentry

General
An upright stair member that is in the middle of two stair treads placed one after the other.

roll roofing Carpentry

Product
Roll roofing is made out of mineral gradules on fiberglass or asphalt saturated felt. It is a mineral surfaced shingle material that is not cut.

roof ridge Carpentry

General
The horizontal line at the intersection of the uppermost edges of two roof surfaces at which an angle over 180 degrees is created.

roofing Carpentry

Technical
The materials put over the structural sections of a roof in order to make it resistant to water.

rotary cut veneer Carpentry

Product
Veneer cut on a lathe that turns a log around onto a large cutting knife. It is cut in a continuous manner.

rough lumber Carpentry

Product
Lumber that is sawn to a rough size but is not yet surfaced or dressed by any other process.

rough opening Carpentry

General
An open area created from the framing members.

roughing-in Carpentry

Technical
The act of installing pipes into a drainage system, including the water pipes, so items are joined to the plumbing fixtures. Also refers to getting the mechanical sections of the building structure partly completed.

saddle Carpentry

General
A gable roof that is put on the back side of a chimney on an inclining roof to get rid of debris and rainwater.

sapwood Carpentry

General
Wood layers near the bark that are active in the life of a tree.

sash Carpentry

General
The framework that supports window glass.

scaffold Carpentry

Equipment
A non-permanent structure that functions as a system to hold materials and workers while a building is being constructed.

scale Carpentry

General
Referring to the reduced size of a drawing. Example, in a 1/3" scale plan, everything 1/3" equals 1' on the actual structure.

scantling Carpentry

Product
Lumber that contains measurements of cross sections from 2 inches x 4 inches to 4 inches x 4 inches.

scarfing Carpentry

Technical
Attaching the ends of stock by an inclining lap-joint with the end purpose of making them seem to be one piece.

scotia Carpentry

Product
A type of molding that is concave and irregular in profile. It is used for cornice trim as well as placed beneath stair treads.

screed Carpentry

Equipment
An instrument utilized in working with concrete in order to flatten a horizontal surface and make it level. It is created out of a piece of metal or wood joined to a pole.

scuttle Carpentry

General
A place in a ceiling that allows once to enter the attic.

seasoning Carpentry

Technical
Taking out the moisture from green wood to in order to make it useful for other purposes.

second growth Carpentry

General
Timber growth from the time of a previous significant cut.

section drawing Carpentry

General
A kind of drawing that visualizes what a section of a structure will appear to be after being cut by a vertical plane.

selvage Carpentry

General
The section of the width of roll roofing that is flat.

septic tank Carpentry

Product
A tank that functions as a system to hold sludgem from sewage flow in order to ensure a set amount of decomposition of organic sludge solids by bacteria.

setting block Carpentry

General
A block of wood put on a glass grove or rabbet of the lowermost rail in order to create a foundation for the glass.

shakes Carpentry

Product
Shingles that are handsplit.

sheathing Carpentry

Product
A covering for the structure built. The covering is made out of panels or boards joined to the outside studing or rafters of the edifice.

sheathing paper Carpentry

Product
A type of material that prevents air from flowing in or out of a space; it is used on floors, walls and roofs.

shim Carpentry

Product
A piece of wood that is utilized in leveling wood pieces such as when trying to set a window frame or door. Also used in plumbing.

shiplap Carpentry

Product
Lumber containing rabbeted edges in order to create a lap joint in the middle of pieces positioned next to each other.

shoring Carpentry

General
Wood that lessens the shifting of the ground next to an excavation site. The term also refers to timber that functions as a temporary support.

shutter Carpentry

Product
A structure made out of rails and stiles to create a frame structure. It contains panels that function along with window frames and doors.

side of trim Carpentry

General
The trim that is needed to complete a window opening or a door's side.

siding Carpentry

Product
One of several types of covering finishes put upon the exterior wall of a frame building.

sill Carpentry

General
The member of a structure's frame that sits on the lowest level of the main support of the frame.

skylight Carpentry

Product
A roof that contains glazing that has been framed.

sleeper Carpentry

General
Timber that acts as support for structures placed on top of it. The term also refers to wood pieces placed in or on a concrete floor to which is then added finish flooring.

soffit Carpentry

General
The bottom side of a structure's members. Examples include beams, arches and staircases.

softwoods Carpentry

General
A group of evergreen trees containing scalelike or needle leaves. Some trees, such as larch, tamarack and cypress are considered softwoods although they are not classified as evergreens. Conifers is another term used for softwoods.

soil stack Carpentry

General
The upright main of a waste, vent piping or soil system.

solar furnace Carpentry

Product
Also known as thermosiphon.

solar orientation Carpentry

General
Positioning a structure on a building site in order to maximize the amount of sunlight it is exposed to.

sole plate Carpentry

General
The strip on partition framing and walls that is closest to the ground. On a partition, a sole plate is held up by a closed surface, such as a concrete slab.

span Carpentry

General
The measurement length between the supports in a structure. Examples of structure supports include beams, girders and piers.

specific gravity Carpentry

General
The proportion of body weight to water weight of the same volume at a set temperature.

specification Carpentry

General
A document specifying the quality, type and number of materials needed for construction project.

splash block Carpentry

General
A masonry block that collects and transports roof drainage away from a structure.

spline Carpentry

General
A section of wood inserted within a slot to create a joint for two members.

square Carpentry

Equipment
A measurement unit used in construction.

stairway, stair, or stairs Carpentry

General
A number of steps with small platforms; they are frequently used to allow for passge between two building levels.

stairwell Carpentry

General
An opening for the placement of stairs.

station mark Carpentry

General
A point of reference; the place at which a level-transit is positioned.

stell-frame construction Carpentry

General
A kind of construction in which a steel frame or steel members act as the support for the other structural members.

stepped footing Carpentry

General
A footing that switches grade levels at set measurements to allow for an inclining site.

stickers Carpentry

General
Pieces of wood dividing the layers of a lumber pile to allow for ventilation.

stile Carpentry

General
The vertical exterior pieces of blinds, doors, screens or sashes.

stool Carpentry

General
An interior trim member that is molded and functions as a window frame sill cap or sash. Rabbeting or beveled-rabbeting are two techniques used on stools to prepare them for window frame sills.

stoop Carpentry

General
A small additional structure placed on the exterior of a building; examples include platforms and verandas.

story Carpentry

General
Anyone of the floor levels of a building.

story pole Carpentry

General
A section of wood used to arrange and transfer measurements of items such as stairways, siding and shingle courses, and window openings.

straightedge Carpentry

General
A piece of straight metal or wood that is used to arrange or ensure the correct layout of a project.

stressed skin Carpentry

General
Two facings that make up a panel. Each facing is glued on one side and joined to the opposite side of an interior framework to make the panel.

strike plate Carpentry

General
A metal piece inserted into the surface of a door frame side jamb to connect to the bolt or latch when shutting the door.

strongback Carpentry

General
A support made of wood and shaped like the letter L; it is joined to ceiling joists in order bolster their strength, keep them level and maintain the spaces between them.

structural window wall panel Carpentry

General
also known as a factory-assembled structural wall panel. A window unit positioned into a wall panel at a factory site.

stud Carpentry

General
One of many upright metal or wood members in partitions and walls.

subfloor Carpentry

General
Panels placed over floor joists in preparation for the layer of the finished floor.

surfaced lumber Carpentry

Product
Lumber that has been run through a planer in order to finish it.

tail beam Carpentry

Product
A joist or beam that is upheld by a header and wall on its two ends.

termite shield Carpentry

General
A shield inserted in or on a main wall or around pipes to protect the structure from termites.

terrazzo flooring Carpentry

Product
A floor created by inseting chips of stone or marble into concerete. The surface is then grinded and polished.

thermosiphon Carpentry

Product
A flat box that collects solar energy. The box transfers air into living spaces or into a storage area.

thermostat Carpentry

Product
A tool that regulates cooling or heating devices through its sensitivity to temperature levels in an area.

three-way switch Carpentry

Product
A switch programmed to work along with another switch that controls an outlet from two different places.

threshold Carpentry

Product
A wood member, sometimes referred to as a saddle, that fills up the area at the bottom of the door and the floor just beneath it.

tie beam Carpentry

General
Also known as a collar beam. The beam is positioned to tie the main rafters of a roof into one group and thus stops the plate from shifting due to any movement of the rafters.

timbers Carpentry

Product
Lumber that is 5 inches at in minimum at its smallest unit of measurement.

toe space Carpentry

General
An area at a floor line of a built-in unit. Toe spaces allow a person to be near while preventing touching the space with one's foot.

toeboard Carpentry

General
A board of at least 4 inches in width that is positioned over planking to prevent equipment from sliding down onto workers below. It is often used on scaffolds.

toenailing Carpentry

Technical
The technique od slanting a nail into a surface in order to drive it further into another member below.

transformer Carpentry

Product
An instrument that changes the voltage behavior of the flow of electricity.

transom Carpentry

General
An opening over a door divided by a transom bar. Frequently a transom holds a louver panel or sash that is attached to the transom bar.

trap Carpentry

General
An instrument that creates a liquid trap seal that stops sewer gases from traveling and moving into a building structure.

tread Carpentry

General
The section of a step that a person puts one's foot.

trim Carpentry

Product
A building's finish materials. Examples of trim include trim on a window or door. Moldings placed around floors or ceiling are also known as trim.

trimmer Carpentry

General
The floor joist or beam upon which a header is framed; this in turn enhances the suport to the opening.

trimmer stud Carpentry

General
A stud that upholds a header for the opening of the wall. It projects from the sole plate and extends to the lowest point of the header.

triple wall Carpentry

General
A kind of chimney flue that is created out of three pipes made of metal. Danger is prevented from the concentric organization and installation is made simple because of its light weight.

tripod Carpentry

Equipment
A holder for a builder's level. It is made out of three inclining legs that maintain stability from friction with contact with the ground.

trombe wall Carpentry

General
A wall of masonry adjacent to the outside glazing that colects solar energy in passive solar construction. Felix Trombe is credited for its design.

truss Carpentry

Product
A structural piece that is made out of bars, ties and beams. It is designed to create triangles. A truss allows for a firm support across wide distances with only a small amount of material.

unicom system Carpentry

Technical
A word taken from "uniform manufacture of components." It utilizes modules with proportions that are bigger ratios of the standard size.

unprotected-metal construction Carpentry

General
A kind of construction that includes metal structural parts that are not protected by fireproofing.

urea-formaldehyde resin glue Carpentry

Product
A type of moisture resistant adhesive that firms up with the addition of water to the resin powder in a chemical reaction.

valley Carpentry

General
The internal angle created by the two inclining slants of a roof.

valley rafter Carpentry

General
A rafter that creates a meeting point of an internal roof angle.

vapor barrier Carpentry

Product
A waterproof material that functions as a preventative measure against moisture from entering structural components.

veneer plaster Carpentry

General
An inside wall surface that is made up of 1/8 inch gypsum plaster and gypsum lath base.

veneered wall Carpentry

Product
A building wall frame containing a masonry surafce. This type of wall is not designed to hold weight.

vent Carpentry

General
A pipe that is inserted to allow for air ventilation in a drainage system. It may also be used to guard trap seals from pressure and siphonage.

ventilation Carpentry

General
The system of providing and taking away air through mechanical or natural methods.

vermiculite Carpentry

Product
A type of mineral that has the characteristic of expanding when heated to create lightweight material that contains insulating properties.

waferboard Carpentry

Product
Construction panels created out of little pieces of wood. It is surfaced with wax and waterproof resin which is then made firm by pressure and heat.

wainscot Carpentry

Product
A bottom inside wall covering that is different from the surface of the wall over it.

wale Carpentry

General
A metal or wood piece that is placed on the exterior of objects for concrete. They prevent form walls from bending due to the load of concrete they carry.

wall tie Carpentry

General
A metal section or wire that joins tiers of masonry in wall construction. It also attaches brick veneer to frame walls of wood.

wallboard Carpentry

Product
Materials - such as gypsum or wood pulp - that are formed into firm sheets that are frequently attached to the structure of a building to give it a finish.

warp Carpentry

General
A change of form in a material from what it should be. Something that is warped may be bent, twisted or crooked.

water repellent Carpentry

General
A type of solution that prevents changes due to moisture content when applied to wood. It is made out of resin and paraffin wax in mineral spirits.

water table Carpentry

General
An extension at the end of a structure that transports water from the area.

weathering Carpentry

General
The wearing and discoloration of a wood's surface. Weathering can be the result of a number of things, including moisture change, light exposure and exposure to air particles pummeled against its surface.

weatherstrip Carpentry

Product
Strips of material - such as vinyl plastic or metal - that are made to prevent movement of water, air, dust or moisture surrounding a window or door area.

weephole Carpentry

General
A hole that removes water to the exterior of a building.

wet wall Carpentry

General
An inside wall covering finish that often is made up of 1/2 inch gyupsum plaster and 3/8 inch gypsum plaster lath. It is put over the lath surface.

whaler Carpentry

General
Also known as waler. A type of support member that is used in concrete form construciton in order to firm up and uphold the weight of the form walls.

wind Carpentry

General
A word describing the warp in a board when it is twisted or distorted.

window unit Carpentry

Product
The unit is made of a sash activation instrument, a window, a frame and weatherstripping. Some window units also include a storm sash and/or a screen. Every section of the unit is organized as a complete system.

wing Carpentry

General
A lateral projection of a building from the original base structure.

wire glass Carpentry

General
Glass containing a layer of meshed wire positioned around its center of the sheet.

wp series molding patterns Carpentry

General
A number of moldings with more than 500 profiles. The moldings were the joint effort of the Western Pine Association and the West Coast Lumbermen's Association. The two have now combined to form the Western Wood Products Association.