C Mount Film

Equipment

A type of lens with a screw mount.  It is frequently used on small 16mm cameras. 

C Stand Film

Equipment

A kind of light stand that contains legs that are fixed and have the ability to extend outward or together when they are not being used.  Frequently they come along with an arm.  A C Stand usually holds a flag. 

C.R. Film

Equipment

An abbreviation that stands for camera roll.

C.T.B. Film

General

An abbreviation for color temperature blue.  Color correction gels are utilized in lighting in order to change the temperature of the color from tungsten to daylight; the gels come in different measurements of quarter blue, full blue, and half blue.

C.T.O. Film

General

An abbreviation for color temperature orange.  Color correction gels are utilized in lighting to change the temperature of the color from daylight to tungsten; the gels come in different measurements of full orange, half orange, and quarter orange.

cabinet Carpentry

Product
A case that is made out of doors, drawers and shelves. It is mainly used to store objects.

cabinet drawer guide Carpentry

Product
A piece of wood that guides a drawer as it moves either in or out of the opening.

cabinet drawer kicker Carpentry

Product
A wood cabinet member that stops the drawer from angling downward when it is opened. It is placed at the center of the drawer in most cases.

cable quilting Quilting

General

A type of design in quilting that looks like a rope that is twisted.

Cable Sync Film

Technical

A somewhat old school method of sync sound shooting.  It involves running a cable from a Pilottone generator from a camera to a tape recorder.

Cabriole Dance

General

The cabriole is a leap in ballet that involves the beating of the lower leg at an angle against the upper leg prior to the dancer touching the ground on the lower leg.

Cachucha Dance

General

The cachucha is a type of Spanish dance that occurs in either ¾ or 3/8 time with castanets.

Cakewalk Dance

General

The cakewalk is a type of African-American dance that involves partners strutting and performing high kicks and quick steps.

Calesitas Dance

General

Calesitas is a term referring to merry-go-rounds.

calico Quilting

Product
A type of printed fabric common in quilting that contains a plain weave and repetitive small designs.

caliper Carpentry

Equipment

A two-legged tool useful for switching over measurements.  

Callipers Sculpture

Equipment

A tool used by sculptors to measure in the round as they work.  The tool contains two jaws that adjust and can be purchased in a variety of sizes in plastic, metal or wood.   

Callout Graphic Design

General

A callout is a label that explains an illustration; a section of the illustration is frequently pointed out with a leader line.

Calypso Dance

General

“Calypso” refers to music typical of the England ballads performed by the people of Trinidad.  Several steps were made for this type of music in 1956 (probably because of the singing of Harry Bellafonte) because the music became so popular.  The steps are similar to the steps found in Martinique Beguine or the Cuban Bolero. 

camber Carpentry

General
A small arch of a beam or another horizontal structural member that stops any bending resulting from weight pressure.

Cambre Fashion

General

Cambre in ballet refers to the bending of one’s wait either to the back or to the side.

Camera Core Film

Equipment

A core that is 2 inches.

Camera Noise Film

General

Camera noise that is heard when a camera is on.  Every camera will generate some noise, which is why a barney is often used.

Camera Obscura Art Materials and General Art Terms

Equipment

Camera obscura refers to a system of mirrors and lenses created during the 16th and 17th centuries.  It was used as a primitive camera for artists.  Using a camera obscura, a painter could project an image on a 2D surface to use it as a preliminary sketch. 

Camera Original Film

General

A stronger word than just saying “Original.”

Camera Reports Film

General

A type of paperwork that goes along with each camera roll.  Each camera roll has one camera reporter.  The reports may be used to share specific timing concerns with the lab.  Reports are important to solve problems with the footage because they allow for a written log of the coverage that is very helpful to the timers and editors to prevent any confusion as they handle the footage.

Camera Roll Film

Equipment

Every roll of film shot becomes a camera roll.  Numbers are used on each roll to clarify its content.  The standard notation is to use the abbreviation of C.R. and then put the number of the roll.  A lab puts the camera rolls together and prints them in the correct order.  This allows for an organized way to go about editing the film later.

Camera Stock Film

Equipment

Another word for film.  Sometimes it is called camera stock so people do not confuse it with print stock.

Camera Tape Film

Equipment

A type of cloth tape that is specially made for use on film shoots.  It is made so no residue is left on the camera.  The tape is usually an inch in width and white.  Frequently people write on the tape with permanent markers to label magazines with the camera roll number and the emulsion type.  Gaffer’s tape is a similar kind of tape and often they are used interchangeably. 

Camera-ready Copy Graphic Design

General

This term refers to the material ready to be published that is prepared into a negative for a printing plate.  An example of a camera-ready copy could be an actual print or a computer file. 

Camisole Fashion

General

A camisole is a women’s garment that contains no sleeves and is short.

Camp Pockets Fashion

General

Camp Pockets are pockets positioned on the exterior of a garment and are frequently seamed and squared-off.

Can Can Dance

General

The Can Can is a dance that began around the 1830s.  In a short time, the Can Can became an energetic dance performed in the music halls of France for social events.  Black silk stocking legs were kicked high in the air – a wild and extreme thing during this time period.  It is thought that the Can Can started as a variation of the Quadrille or Polka. 

cancer Fermentation

General

Cancer is the formation of abnormal cells; these cells frequently grow at an alarming rate and may spread to any part of the body if not contained or removed.  The abnormal cells can manifest themselves in different ways in a single tissue.  The term “cancer” is an umbrella term that covers over a hundred different types of diseases.  The consumption of fermented foods, such as yogurt, kefir and sauerkraut, helps to prevent and retard the growth of cancer and disease due to their ability to fight bad bacteria with the good bacteria they contain.

 

Cane Carpentry

General

A multi-purpose and long-wearing climbing palm that thrives in the subtropics and tropics. 

canopy Interior Decorating

Product
A cloth covering hanging over a bed often used to create a sense of romance or mystery.

cant strip Carpentry

Product
A section of wood shaped like a triangle; it is placed underneath the edges of roofing on flat decks or underneath shingles at gable ends.

Canvas Art Materials and General Art Terms

Equipment

A piece of woven cloth that provides the surface area for paint. 

Canvas (textiles) Textiles

General

A type of long-wearing tightly woven cloth that contains a rougher texture; it often used for practical purposes.  Canvas may be made from materials such as acrylics, cottons or a combination of other materials.  It is often treated in order to be water-resistant.

Canyengue Dance

General

The Canyengue is at the root of the tango.  It goes back to the 1900s.  The title means “walk with cadence” and comes from Africa.  The dance is a sensual, rather upbeat performance.  It contains short steps and a strong beat.  Overtime the musical signature of 4x8 was changed to the tango’s musical signature of today of 4x2.

Cap Height Graphic Design

General

Cap Height is the amount of distance that exists from the top of the capital letters to the baseline.

Cap Line Calligraphy

General

In calligraphy, the cap line is the guideline that displays how high a capital letter is. 

Cap Sleeve Fashion

General

A cap sleeve is a sleeve that is short and small that rests on the shoulder; it creates a stiff cap or covering on the arm to allow for only a small amount of coverage.

cape cod cottage Interior Decorating

General
A 1 to 1.5 story rectangular house that frequently contains a central chimney and a gabled roof.

capillary action Welding

Technical
A process by which the surface of a liquid is pulled towards other fixed molecules nearby.

Capri Pants Fashion

General

Capri pants are simply shortened pants; they taper to the mid-calf.

Caption Graphic Design

General

A caption is used as a title for a picture or an illustration; frequently a caption is a short phrase.  It should refer and relate to the content used around it.

caraway seeds Cooking

General

A brown seed that is small and curved that features a nutty taste.  It originates from the parsley family.

carbohydrate Fermentation

General

Carbohydrates are created out of hydrogen, oxygen and carbon; they are neutral compounds.  Starches, fiber, and sugars are forms of carbohydrates.  They are thought of as a “macronutrient” due to the carbohydrate’s ability to provide a substantial amount of energy in one’s food intake. 

 

carburizing Welding

Technical
A process using heat to stiffen iron-based alloys. Carbon is diffused into a metal and then quenched after a period of time. Also a term by which a acetylene-rich flame covers a metal section with soot during gas welding.

cardamom Cooking

General

A type of sweet spice that originates from India.  It belongs to the ginger family and can be purchased in the form of a pod or ground state.  To achieve the freshest flavor, it is best to ground one's own cardamom just before use to ensure the best flavor. 

Cardigan Fashion

General

A cardigan is a knit jacket that opens in the front.  The term “cardigan” comes from Great Britain’s Earl of Cardigan (also known as James Thomas Brudenell). 

Cardigan Jacket Fashion

General

A cardigan jacket is a jacket or sweater not containing a collar; it is open at the garment’s front.

cardiovascular Fermentation

General

The term “cardiovascular” is used in reference to something relating to the heart and blood vessels.

 

cardoon Cooking

General

A artichoke relative that is common in France, South America and Italy.  Its leaves are removed and the stems are eaten. 

Cargo Fashion

General

Cargo refers to a garment’s design that includes a large pocket with a pleat and flap.

Carioca Dance

General

The carioca is a term referring to a native of Rio de Janeiro; the term also is shorthand for the Brazilian dance called the Samba Carioca.  During the dance, people join together in chains or cues (called cordoes) and move their bodies back and forth to the Samba-Carioca and the Marchas.  The dance is performed at the Carioca Carnival. 

Carmagnole Fashion

General

A carmagnole is a type of jacket containing gold buttons and wide lapels that was worn by French Revolutionaries. Workers originally from Carmagnola, Italy introduced the jacket to France.

Carolina Shag Dance

General

A type of Swing dance style originating performed in the states of Virginia, North and South Carolina, and Georgia.  Usually the dance is performed to the music of The Embers, The Drifters, the Tarms, and a variety of “Motown” artists.  The dance is similar to West Coast Swing – containing similar coaster steps, shuffles, slot movement… The tempo of the music is slow to medium and is danced by a wide variety of ages. 

Carolingian Script Calligraphy

General

This is the first standard minuscule script; it was designed by Alcuin of York towards the end of the 8th century.  He was directed by the Emperor Charlemagne to create it.

carpaccio Cooking

General

An Italian appetizer created from shavings of filet mignon. 

Cartoon Painting

General
A full-size drawing (which may be colored) that an original piece of work is copied from.  A cartoon is meant to be a preparatory drawing for the final version of the piece.

 

carving Sculpture

General
A sculpture created from the act of carving into a piece of material.  A carved piece of work is often called a "carving," but the term "sculpture" is usually given to a carving that has a sense of aesthetic and artistic worth.

 

caryatid Sculpture

General
A female figure that acts as a supporting column for an entablature in architectural sculpture.  Often times the figure is featured with long robes and poses in a graceful position.  

 

cased opening Carpentry

General
The inner opening of a structure that is finished with trim or jambs.

Casein Art Materials and General Art Terms

Equipment

A protein taken from cow’s milk that is used to made a water-resistant flat film.

casein glue Carpentry

Product
A type of adhesive made out of hydrated lime and casein. It is often used to laminate wood that contains a lot of moisture or for keeping oily wood pieces together.

Casein Paint Painting

Product

 A water-soluble paint that contains a dusty-like finish.

casement Carpentry

Product
A type of window with a sash that can swing inwardly and outwardly because it sits on an upright edge.

Cashmere Textiles

General

An elegant, very soft fiber made of wool created from Kashmir goats' hair.  The goats are bred in Iraq, India, Tibet, China, Mongolia, and Iran.

casing Carpentry

Product
The finished edging surrounding a window or door; it can also be the completed lumber surrounding a beam or post.

casserole Cooking

General

A container that is ovenprofoof and deep; it is used to cook foods gradually.

Cast Shadow Drawing

General

A cast shadow is a type of shadow that is created on a form next to a surface that is turned away from the source of light.  When a form blocks the light, it causes a cast shadow to be formed.  Every object that blocks light has a cast shadow associated with it.

cataract Fermentation

General

A cataract is the fogging over of the eye’s lens; cataracts often cause visual impairment over time.  A number of sicknesses and diseases can be helped or alleviated with the consumption of fermented foods, such as yogurt, sauerkraut and kefir.  

 

catfish Cooking

General

A common white-fleshed fish.  Wild catfish contain a muddier flavor as opposed to catfish that have been bred in farms.  White flesh is tastier than grayish flesh.

cathedral window Quilting

Technical
A quilting technique that centers a piece of colored block of fabric on a muslin square that is stitched and folded.

caulk Carpentry

Product
The action of waterproofing and sealing the joints and cracks around an area - such as around door frames or window edges.

cayenne Cooking

General

A type of pepper that is made out of finely ground chile pepper.  It is also known as red pepper.

celeriac Cooking

General

A kind of celery that is popular for its root.  This root is eaten mostly in purees and salads. 

celiac disease Fermentation

General

Celiac disease (celiac sprue) is a genetic disease that results when the intestinal lining becomes inflamed as a result of someone eating protein gluten (as found in wheat products, rye, barley and often corn and oats).  Prevention of the inflammation is attained by not eating grains containing gluten.  The disruption of nutrient absorption can occur with celiac disease due to the inflammation and wasting away of the intestines.  This lack of absorption of nutrients can cause tremendous strain on the body and result in a number of symptoms. Because celiac disease is caused by someone unable to properly break down protein gluten, many people who have celiacs disease are able to consume properly fermented organic whole wheat sourdough bread because the fermentation process breaks down the protein gluten.  Thus, consuming the bread is no longer a problem for the intestines to digest.

 

 

 

cellulose acetate Photography

General

Cellulose acetate is derived from cellulose which is used in the processing of lacquers, plastics, photographic film and textile fibers.  Because it is less flammable that celluose nitrate, it is less dangerous to use in film.  Moreover, it does not yellow to the same degree as cellulose nitrate does in the daylight; however, cellulose acetate does not last as long, is not as hard and lacks other lacquer properties.  Permanent constructions or paintings should not use cellulosic products due to their instability.  

celtic or bias applique Quilting

Technical
A type of applique technique that uses uniform folded strips of fabric to create intricate curved geometric designs similar to the designs used in Ireland during the 8th to 10th centuries.

Cement Splice Film

Equipment

A specific kind of splice that negative cutters frequently use.  It involves the overlap of two pieces of film joined together with film cement. 

center of interest Art Materials and General Art Terms

Technical

The all-important part of a painting to which all other elements are supportive in that they do not generate distraction. Competing portions of a painting can diminish the power, intensity, or preferred focus on the center of interest. 

center vanishing point CVP Art Perspective

General

The point located on the horizon line that connects to the observation point.  Usually it is at this point where the horizon line and centerline intersect each other.  It is also at this point where lines parallel to the picture plane disappear.   

center-outward block construction method Quilting

Technical
A process by which blocks are pieced by starting with a main center piece and progressing outward from this piece.

centerline CL Art Perspective

General
A line, marked as "CL," that is drawn down the middle of a drafting. 

 

chain piecing Quilting

Technical
A method that joins many pieces of fabric together by inserting them through a sewing machine one after the other while continuing one's pressure on the presser foot and not cutting the threads between the pieces.

chair rail Carpentry

Product
The inside molding placed along the perimeter of a wall in a room to stop a chair from bruising a wall.

Chambre Syndicale de la Couture Parisienne Fashion

General

 Chambre Syndicale de la Couture Parisienne is an organization centered on promoting Parisian high fashion.  The organization is involved with press relations, defending copyrights, operating vocational schools and arranges collections of work.  It was founded in 1910.  

chamfer Carpentry

General
A corner containing a 45 degree angle bevel of a board.

Chan Anime / Manga

General

Chan is an honorific term used in anime that signifies a level of closeness or affection for a particular person (usually a female).  The term may also be used in relation to a pet or a child. 

Chancery Cursive Calligraphy

General

This is a form of italic script that scribes of the papal Chancery in Renaissance Italy used to do their work.  Chancery cursive is also known as cancellaresca.

Changing Bag Film

Equipment

A black bag with two compartments that contains elasticized arm holes on each side and a zipper on an end.  The bag was designed to load film into magazines. 

chanterelle Cooking

General

A subtly flavored fleshy mushroom.

Character Calligraphy

General

Character is a typographic term used to describe items frequently used in typesetting, such as symbols, punctuation marks, or letters.  The term may also refer to Japanese or Chinese ideogram.

Charcoal Art Materials and General Art Terms

Product

Wood that has been burned and compressed; it is a tool used to create drawings.  Charcoal is a versatile drawing medium; numerous types of marks can be made.  It comes in a few varieties, including soft or hard sticks. 

 

chard Cooking

General

A beet that is red, white or pink in its midrib.  Chard has an unusual acid-sweet flavor.

charm quilt Quilting

General
A patchwork quilt in which no two pieces are exactly alike.

chase Carpentry

General
A wood structure that extends from an exterior wall that witholds a prefabricated chimney.

chayote Cooking

General

Similar to a zucchini or summer squash.  They have a long shelf-life and need to be treated gently.  They may be cooked like a summer squash. 

Cheat Film

General

A term referring to a technique used in creating films that involves altering perspectives and angles to create a better composition for shots other than the original shot taken of a scene.  Frequently the method is employed to hide either props or actors not in the correct position.  Something can be cheated “into” a shot or “out of” a shot. 

check Carpentry

General
A split/crack that may happen inside a log; the split moves radially from the core to the bark due to fast drying. 

 

Check Print Film

General

A print created from an optical or inter-negative that is used to double-check the quality of an effect. 

check rails Carpentry

General
The intersection of rails of a double-hung window. The rails are purposely created thicker in order to fill up the space in the middle of the bottom and top sash.

cheesecloth Cooking

Equipment

A cotton gauze that retains its fibers when wet and does not add flavor to the food it covers.  It is used to strain liquids and remove small particles.

Chemise à la Reine Fashion

General

A style of dress worn by Marie-Antoinette, queen of Louis XVI of France during the 1780s.  The style originated from the chemise dress.

Chemise dress Fashion

General

The chemise dress is a muslin dress originating from the Empire period.  It was designed with a slim skirt and high waistline and was worn without a corset. 

Chenille Textiles

Product

A durable fabric with a luxurious feel often used in rooms for upholstering furniture. 

It may also reference a velvety, soft, tufty cord or yarn.  It can also be used for items such as embroidery purposes or on carpet edges for fringe embellishments.

cherimoya Cooking

General

Also known as custard apple.  A fruit that originates from America.  It contains a white interior and a greenish-brown exterior.  It is sweet in flavor and contains watermelonish seeds.

Chiaroscuro Painting

Technical

A modeling effect in fine art painting in which strong contrast between dark and light values is used, lending a three-dimensional appearance. 

Chibi Anime / Manga

General

Chibi in Japan signifies little or small and has the negative connotation of being translated as “puny.”  Anime American watchers usually understand the word to signify that a character is very deformed, tiny or cute. 

China silk Fashion

General

China silk is a type of lightweight plain-weave shiny silk created in either Japan or China. 

chintz Quilting

General
A type of cotton fabric that contains a chemically applied glazed finish. Also known as polished cotton.

chintz Quilting

General
A type of cotton fabric that contains a chemically applied glazed finish. Also known as polished cotton.

chintz quilt Quilting

General
A quilt made out of chintz fabric.

chisel Carpentry

Equipment
A tool used by carpenters for single-bevelling.   

 

cholesterol Fermentation

General

Cholesterol is a compound that plays an essential structural part in cell membranes; it is a precursor in the making of steroid hormones.  The liver synthesizes cholesterol, but it is gathered into the body by consuming animal products.  Among the many things that can raise one’s unhealthy cholesterol levels, table salt is a major factor. 

 

chordal distance Carpentry

General

The distance between two points located on a curve; the measure of the distance circling the curve is longer than the chordal distance 

choux pastry Cooking

General

A pastry that when baked is fluffy and frequently filled with a creamy substance.  It is made out of butter, water and flour that is cooked on top of the stove before the dough is shaped and baked.

chroma Color

General
Intensity. The amount of brightness of a hue; the amount of purity of a hue.

chromatic Color

General
Containing color; the opposite of achromatic.

chromatic neutral Color

General
The dominant hue in a color mixture; color identity.

chronic fatigue syndrome Fermentation

General

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a condition of intense, long-term lethargy and tiredness that is not assuaged by sleep, relaxation or rest.  It is often associated with autoimmune diseases and may be a sign of vitamin deficiency, such as iron or vitamin D.  Eating probiotic foods such as homemade fermented sauerkraut, yogurt and kefir can have a large impact of those suffering from chronic fatigue syndrome because the good bacteria in these foods fight bad bacteria, boost the immune system and result in higher energy levels. 

 

chutney Cooking

General

A tasty jam that has a range of textures and flavorings.  It is served with foods that have a strong taste.

cider vinegar Cooking

General

A kind of vinegar produced from fermented apple cider.

cilantro Cooking

General

Also known as Chinese parsley.  Cilantro comes from the coriander plant's leaves.

Cinch Marks Film

General

The term refers to tiny vertical scratches on film rolls that occur from when a film’s end is pulled to make the roll taunt.  Dust currently on the film will make a tiny scratch.  Cinching may happen if there is excessive drag on the supply during the rewinding process. 

 

cinnamon Cooking

General

A type of sweet and hot spice.  It originates from the bark of tropical evergreen trees.  Cinnamon sticks are frequently ground to make cinnamon powder.

Clamp Light Film

General

A kind of lighting fixture used in films that is made to hold a screw-in light bulb; sometimes it also contains an aluminum reflector dish.  The light is mounted with a spring clamp on one side of an open door. 

clamshell edging Quilting

General
Fabric in the form of bending pockets or semicircles that is stitched side by side or overlapping onto the edges of a quilt for a decorative touch. It is used rather than using binding.

Clapper / Clapstick Film

Equipment

Two sticks struck against each other to signify a sync sound take.  Also known as the Slate or Clap Board.

Classical Art Styles/Movements

General

A of style of artwork referring to ancient Roman or Greek architexture and art.  Most of the artwork focuses upon symmetry and geometry, as opposed to freedom of personal expression. 


clay soil Gardening

General
A kind of soil that contains tiny soil particles.

Clean Up Drawing Print Making

General

A drawing completed by using other unfinished animation drawings.  Cels care made from the rough animated drawings.   

cleat Carpentry

General
A section of wood appllied over a door to increase its strength. It is also a section of wood applied to a wall to uphold objects - such as a fixture or shelf.

cleaver Cooking

Equipment

Similar to a small kitchen ax.  It is frequently used in Chinese cooking.

clip Quilting

General
A small incision made on a piece of fabric to reduce strain and make it lie flat. It allows a piece of fabric to lay perpendicular to a seam allowance edge and to lie close to the seam line.

Cloche Fashion

General

A cloche is a hat worn in the 1920s.  The name is derived from the French word for “bell,” because of the deep-crown shape of the hat.

closet pole Carpentry

Product
A rounded molding inserted in closets to allow for clothes hangers.

cloud ear Cooking

General

A type of mushroom that contains a woodsy flavor.  It is brownish-black in color and can be found in Asian markets. 

clove Cooking

General

A type of spice that is intense and sweet.  It comes in both whole and powdered form.

CMYK Print Making

General

CMYK stands for cyan, magenta, yellow and key (black).  It is a color system that is used by printers to put each color on a separate printing plate in order to create a final full color image.  It is also known as “four color printing.”  It should be noted that the majority of giclee printers print to an inkjet printer in RGB.  This is because there exists a superior color gamut, and images are captured in RGB by scanners. 

 

Co-axial Magazine Film

Equipment

A kind of magazine that contains two compartments placed right next to each other.  They contain the supply and take up rolls that are mounted on the same axle on each of its ends. 

Co-Polymers Art Materials and General Art Terms

General

A molecule of more than one kind of structural unit. 

Cockade, cocarde Fashion

General

A rosette created with pleated ribbon.  It was used originally for military insignia. 

Cockling Art Materials and General Art Terms

General

A term referring to the puckering that happens on papers after washes if they are not stretched correctly or if they are not very strong.    

cocoa powder Cooking

General

A powder that originates from the cocoa bean.  It is used frequently in baked foods and is the essential ingredient in the popular drink hot chocolate.

coconut Cooking

General

A fruit originating from the coconut palm.  A firm brown hair shell is encompassed by a husk.  Under the shell resides the coconut meat that stores the sweet milky juice.  Coconut may be purchased as flakes, as a whole coconut or in shredded pieces.

coconut milk Cooking

General

A mixture made from mixing shredded coconut meat with hot water.  The mixture is simmered until it becomes foamy.  The liquid is then strained from the meat.  The result is coconut milk.

cod Cooking

General

A type of mild-flavored white fish.  It is very flaky and may be substituted for hake, pollock and haddock. 

Code Numbers Film

General

Numbers that are ink-on that are frequently placed on a mag track or workprint after syncing.  They allow for the correct alignment of sound and picture during the editing process.  Sometimes they are also used for general assembling of the film footage.  They are often confused with Latent Edge Numbers.

cognac Cooking

General

A brandy made in western France in and around the town of Cognac.

Coil building Ceramic Art

Technical

A hand-building technique employed to create pots.  Clay plastic "snakes" are formed, pushed and pinched to combine them into a pot. Sometimes the artist leaves the coil appearance to achieve a particular affect.  Ceramics created with coil building depend largely on the artist's hand to create the object's form vs. using a potters wheel or mold.  The coils themselves may be defined or smooth based upon the texture of the object or the intent of the artist.   

Coir Carpets/Rugs

General

A natural matting that is very durable.  It is created from the exterior husks of coconuts.  Most of them originate from Kerala, India.

cold weld Welding

General
An inadequate puncturing of the weld bead, frequently less than 5% of the bead thickness.

collage Art Materials and General Art Terms

General

Collage refers to adhering two-dimensional objects to an image's surface.  Collage should not be confused with assemblage. 

collagen Fermentation

General

Collagen is an insoluble fibrous protein that is the foundation of healthy cartilage, tendons, cartilage, skin and other connective tissue.  There are over 15 types of collagen that are the building blocks of the human body.  It is the most abundant protein in the body.  As one ages, the creation of collagen in the body slows down, resulting in joint stiffness, a reduction in ligament and tendon elasticity and thin, weak skin.  Eating fermented foods that contain probiotics such as homemade yogurt, kefir and sauerkraut plays an important role in influencing the health of collagen in the body.  For example, eating probiotic foods influences the health of skin due to the impact of good bacteria on systemic inflammation throughout the body, tissue lipid content and glycemic control.  Atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, acne and rosacea are all skin conditions that can be helped by eating probiotic foods.

 

collar beam Carpentry

General
A tie beam joining rafters high above the wall plate. Also known as a rafter tie.

College Art Association

General

The CAA's Professional Development Fellowship offers grants of $5,000 for students to use for an MFA program. CAA helps find work for the student in year two, as well as awarding a $10,000 subsidy to the employer as part of students' income.

 

 

colon Fermentation

General

The colon is the area of the large intestines that reaches from the end of the small intestines to the rectum.  Its function is to clear away water from food that is been digested after it travels through the small intestine and holds the leftover stool until it is passed from the body.  Eating fermented foods plays a large role in keeping the colon healthy, because good bacteria in these foods fights bad bacteria from overpopulating the colon which can then result in disease and other health conditions.

colonial American country style Interior Decorating

General
The American style of furniture that emulates the French and English country style furniture.

color chemistry Art Materials and General Art Terms

General

Chemists work with pigments to test their characteristics, and they use the knowledge they glean from this in order to create paints from colorants.  William Henry Perkin discovered aniline dyes created from coal tar in 1856.  And since then many improvements have been made in regard to performance and quality of artists’ pigments.  Synthetic pigments are available today that provide greater safety in their use, as well as strength and beauty not always available in natural pigments (some of which fade over time).  Scientists have been able to restore and save paintings from hundreds of years ago because of their knowledge of pigment permanence. 

color constancy Color

General
The eye's ability to adapt to changes in illumination.

color contrast in printed fabrics Quilting

General
The amount of contrast between the background color and printed motifs on pieces of fabric.

Color Correction Print Making

Technical

Color correction is the altering of shades, hues, channels, contrast and amounts of separate colors prior to printing in order to prevent any color casts and balancing problems that may result from the scanned image or original.
 
 

Color Field Painting Painting

Technical

Color field painting is a technique of painting started in the 1950’s – 1970’s.  It involves either big or small regions of abstracted color.  Well-known color field painters include Helen Frankenthaler, Morris Louis, Jules Olitski and Mark Rothko.

color harmony Color

Technical

Unlike the “Rembrandt effect” that some painters seek to create for harmony’s sake that had once been developed from time, dirt, and varnish on old master works – a preferred if not true color harmony in an art piece is one that reflects how that singular source of sunshine can wash over an outdoor scene of whatever colors – and yet allow for a united tone of reflected light and values. Achieving color harmony can give that assuring sense that all parts of a painting are from the same day – and moment. 

color identity Color

General
Chromatic neutral; the dominant hue in a color mixture.

color index number Color

General
An identification number attached to a specific pigment arrangement.

Color Management Print Making

Technical

Color management is a process of controlling the output and input devices regarding how they understand the hues they are utilizing.  Frequently this is completed in a software that manipulates images (like Photoshop) prior to printing; RIP software contains color profiles that are designed to pair colors together when printing occurs on various colors of paper.  The term “proofing” refers to the process of working to get a file to the appropriate stage. 

Color Model Cel Animation

General

An animation cel made to ensure correct coloration.  Also known as a color test.

Color perception / Seeing color Color

General

Color perception is the color that we see when we view an object or scene.  Color perception can be influenced by a number of factors, such as color blindness, the inability to observe without preconceived notions, and the quality of light that one is seeing an object/scene in.  There are many theories about color perception.  There even exists a school in California dedicated solely to the art of seeing color!  When one simply “observes” something without the input of any preconceived notions, a better color perception occurs.  Becoming aware of color and trying to perceive color accurately is a skill that takes much time and effort to acquire.  Painters especially practice the art of perceiving color in order to paint objects as they are. 

color personality Color

General
A person's taste in regard to certain colors in an artist's work.

color scheme Color

General
An arrangement of colors based upon an orderly arrangement of colors on the color wheel used within a piece of artwork.

color shade Color

General
The value of a color ranging from dark to medium. A darker value of a color.

color solid Color

General
The properties of color presented on a 3D form.

Color Spacing Graphic Design

General

Color spacing is the placement of spaces to areas of words that are congested in order to improve the sense of balance after the line is set normally.

Color Stainer Painting

General

A strong coloring agent that permeates a surface.

Color symbolism / Color meaning Color

General

Color symbolism refers to the meaning associated with that of a certain color.  Each color may have several different color symbolisms attached to it depending on the context and culture it is used in.  (For example, white in some cultures symbolizes purity.  In other cultures, it symbolizes death.)  There are a number of influential factors that affect the symbolism of a color.  These influences include the following:
1. The different shades of a color (like red and pink).

2. The object or shape the color is contained within.

3. The position and amount of the color in an area.

4. The color combination used (such as red, white and blue, or red and green).

When color is used in a large region or shape, it can have a strong impact in its symbolism. Moreover, when a color is used along with a certain shape – such as a star, triangle, or hexagon – the symbolism of the color becomes more complex.  

One example of the use of color symbolism is the common use of the color black to symbolize one is in a state of mourning.  
 

Color Temperature (film) Film

General

The amount of color in light.  Film footage is far more sensitive to changes in color temperature than the human eye is.  The scientist Lord Kelvin created the scale that color temperature in film is measure by.

color tint Color

General
A high key value of a particular color; a lighter value of a color

color tone Color

General
A color influenced by a complement or gray tone.

color wheel Color

General
A circular organization of the colors on the color spectrum.

colorant Color

General
Dye or pigment; color substance.

colorist Color

General
A person placing emphasis on color relationships in a piece of artwork.

Colorist (film) Film

General

Another name for the Timer of a video transfer.

colorless blender Drawing

Technical

a drawing pencil with fillers and wax sans pigment whose purpose is to permit burnishing without introducing additional color. 

Colorwash Painting

General

A water-based colored translucent glaze spread over a surface to give a certain effect.

column Carpentry

Product
A vertical support structure that is either rectangular or circular in its shape.

Column Gutter Graphic Design

General

A column gutter is the space lying between the type columns.

combination block Quilting

General
A block that is created from patchwork and applique pieces.

Combing Painting

Technical

A painting technique that involves scrapping the teeth of a comb through a surface glaze in order to uncover the surface beneath it.

comforter Quilting

General
A covering for a bed that contains a thick filler bound with fabric that is tied rather than quilted.

commerical standard Carpentry

General
A standard that fosters fair competition amongst companies. The standard creates for items such as certification, methods of testing, quality control and a rating system of manufactured products.

Commission Business Art

General

A commission is an original piece of artwork completed by an artist as requested by a client.

compatible colors Color

General
Colors paired for similarities in intensity, tinting strength, opacity or transparency.

Compères Fashion

General

Compères - two cloth panels used in during the middle of the eighteenth century for women’s open robes.  The panels were joined to the inside front bodice and positioned with buttons or hooks.  They were an improvement in functionality from the stomacher (it needed to be pinned to the dress every time it was put on).

complementary colors Color

General
Colors on the opposite sides of the color wheel.

complete fertilizer Gardening

Product
Plant food that contains the nutrient elements of potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen.

Composition Art Materials and General Art Terms

General

The organization of the art elements in a drawing or painting.  These art elements include shape, color, movement, line, tone, color, edges and perspective. 

compost Gardening

General
Organic material that is decomposed and mixed into soil to enhance its chemical balance and fertility.

compound patterns Quilting

General
Patterns that are shown with their sections already connected and as they will appear in the completed design.

Comprehensive Layout (Comp) Graphic Design

General

A comprehensive layout is the publication’s blueprint; it displays how the type will be set and placed; it also shows the sizing, position of the illustrations on the page, and the treatment to be used.

concave Art Materials and General Art Terms

General

Curving inwards.  Hollow. 

concave curve Quilting

General
A type of curve that is inwardly rounded - like the inside of a bowl.

Conception / Execution Art Materials and General Art Terms

General

Conception refers to the initial development of an artist’s idea.  It involves the start of a creative idea that is refined aesthetically through careful visualization and the solving problems that come up.  As the idea is developed, the execution of the idea begins.  The method of how to carry out the idea, as well as the use of materials to be used determines how the conception is realized.  Usually artists that follow the traditional genre are more concerned with the techniques of how to make their artwork come about.  Contemporary artists, for the most part, frequently put more time and effort towards the initial idea and what they wish to “say” to the viewer. 

Conceptual art Art Materials and General Art Terms

General

A type of art in which the concept or idea of the work is the essential element regarding the overall message and assessment of the work.  It is the idea behind the work that is considered important, and all the planning and decisions regarding the work stem from the initial idea.  Marcel Duchamp, a French artist, is credited with showing conceptualists examples of conceptual works, such as his piece called, "Fountain" in 1917. 

Condensed Font Graphic Design

General

Condensed font is a font that involves the set-widths of the characters being narrower in comparison to the normal typeface. 

conductors Carpentry

General
The pipes that guide water flow from a roof to the ground or to a drain. Also known as a downspout.

conduit, electrical Carpentry

General
A tube in which wiring is inserted.

Condyle Artist Anatomy

General

A term describing a type of bone convex form, a condyle is a knobby shape that is in front of the body’s joints.

cone of vision Art Perspective

General

The cone of vision is the visual region displayed by a drawing that relates to a person’s normal vision without his/her peripheral vision.  In a nutshell, the cone of vision is the area of sight – or the angle of sight.  For example, if a person wanted to see the entire theatre stage, usually a cone of vision is 60 degrees is required, so a person would need to sit far enough back to achieve this degree of vision.  

Confection Fashion

General

Confection is a French word for the affordable, mass-produced clothing that started during the middle of the nineteenth century.

Conformations Film

General

A term referring to the various versions of a film made during the editing process.  Usually dates are used to organize them.  They are used on large production films to ensure that all the various editing departments are each using the correct conformation. 

Conforming Film

Technical

A term referring to a negative cutter’s pairing of a workprint to the original.

Constructivism Art Styles/Movements

General

1915-1940s
Germany was the main location of the activity stemming from the Constructivism movement that developed from the Russian avant-garde; however the movement also developed in other areas such as the United States and Paris.  The movement was dedicated to abstraction and devotion to modernity.  The art produced from the movement was non-emotional and often experimental in nature.  The artwork was often boiled down to basic elements in order to create order in art which its members thought would lead to greater peace and unity throughout the world. Ben Nicholson, Naum Gabo, Antoine Pevsner, and El Lissitzky are examples of artists that promoted the development and expansion of the movement.

contact cement Carpentry

Product
A neoprene rubber-based adhesive that joins objects together immediately upon contact.

Contact Printing Film

Technical

A way in which a lab replicates film.  The print is created on a Contact Printer machine; the unexposed print stock and original film are attached together.  As one emulsion is pressed against the other’s emulsion, they are sped by a light radiating through the original which then exposes the print stock with the same picture.   There are a few kinds of contact prints, including answer prints, release prints, and workprints.  In addition to contact printing, there exists optical printing which involves either creating a reduction print or making a blow up.

Content Drawing

General

Content in artwork corresponds to the subject matter and the significance of that subject matter in a piece of artwork.

Continuity Film

Technical

Going smoothly from one shot of detail to another shot in a film scene using physical elements rather than choices in coverage.  It can be done in a number of ways, including through the position of props, through lighting choices, through actor’s costumers or through the actors themselves.

Continuous Line Drawing Drawing

General

A continuous line drawing is a type of drawing that includes continuous contact with the surface of a picture plane that makes enclosed forms and shapes. 

Continuous Tone Graphic Design

General

Continuous tone refers to pieces of art that include variations of gray (versus black and white line art).  Drawings and photographs sometimes need treatment as continuous tone art pieces. 

Contour Drawing

General

Contour in art refers to the outside edges, as well as the defined enclosed edges, of a person, object or mass.

Contrapposto Art Materials and General Art Terms

General
The idea in the visual arts of weight shift.  Frequently contrapposto is used to show the subject matter with the torso a little away from its axis, one leg holding most of the weight while the other leg is bent, and the subject matter posing in a relaxed manner.

 

convenience outlet Carpentry

Product
An electrical outlet that portable equipment can be plugged into.

Convergence Art Perspective

General

Convergence in a drawing or painting refers to linear perspective.  In linear perspective, all lines that are parallel converge together as they run along to a point at a person’s eye level (also known as the horizon line) in the picture place.  This phenomena is known as “convergence.”

convex Art Materials and General Art Terms

General

Curving outwards.  Protruding out.   

convex curve Quilting

General
A type of curve that is outwardly rounded - like the outside of the bottom of a bowl.

Coocoloris Film

Equipment

Another term for cookie or gobo.

Cookie Film

Equipment

A flat board filled with holes that makes shadow patterns if placed in front of a light.

Copal Art Materials and General Art Terms

Product

A hard resin that is put into painting mediums and varnishes. 

cope Carpentry

General
To form the end of a molded wood piece so it can be placed over the outside edge of another piece of molding.

Copy Graphic Design

General

Copy refers to text used in things such as word-processing files or typewritten pages.   The term may also refer to the graphics and text in a publication. 

Copyfitting Graphic Design

General

Copyfitting is the layout of a certain section of copy in a particular set amount of space.

Coracobrachialis Artist Anatomy

General

Part of the upper arm, the coracobrachialis includes the coracoid process of scapula.  It is located at the mid-point on the medial side of the humerus.  The Coracobrachilis is responsible for adducting the upper arm and bringing it forward.

corbel out Carpentry

Technical
To reach outwardly from a surface of a masonry wall a number of courses in order to create a supporting ledge.

Core Film

Equipment

A hub made of plastic that functions as a means to hold film minus the reel.  It comes in different sizes.  Small cores are 2 inches and large cores are 3 inches.  A 2 inch core is often referred to as a camera core.

Cork Carpentry

Product

Cork is taken from the bark of the evergreen cork tree.  To prepare cork, the bark of the tree is first granulated, and then combined with resins.  It is then pressed and baked into sheet form or tile.  Most of the world's cork comes from Portugal.

corm Gardening

General
An underground stem that is firm and bulb-like in appearance; it is not divided into scales.

corner bead Carpentry

Product
A type of molding that is created to shield corners. It is also a metal strengthener that is put on corners prior to plastering.

corner braces Carpentry

Product

Crossing braces inserted into studs to strengthen corners of the structure of frames.

corner triangle Quilting

General
A triangle that fits into the corner of a diagonal-set quilt.

cornice Carpentry

General
The outside edge of a structure at the place of intersection of a roof and wall. It often is made up of boards, moldings and panels.

Corrected Print Film

General

Another word for a timed print.

Corrections Film

General

Alterations made during the timing of a print.

corrosion Welding

General
A process by which oxidation takes place on metal over time due to items such as the atmosphere or moisture. Moreover oiling, plating, painting and other layers of coats hep prevent this oxidation process from occurring.

Corset Fashion

General

A corset is a fitted inner bodice stiffened with wood, metal or whalebone that was positioned with lacing. The actual term “corset” was used later after the invention had been around for some time.  Until then, the corset was referred to as an undergarment (called stays in English). 

corymb Gardening

General
A term used to describe flowers that are flat-topped or rounded in shape.

Cosplay Anime / Manga

General

In anime, cosplay is a term that is shorthand for “costume play.”  The term originated from the custom of anime watchers to put on the outfits of anime characters and playing out scenes from anime films.  Cosplay is a big part of the anime conventions that happen all over the world. 
 
 

Costume jewelry Fashion

General

Costume jewelry is jewelry created from imitation stones or gemstones that look like precious stones.  Costume jewelry became popular when Gabrielle Chanel displayed imitation jewels during the 1920s.  The idea gradually grew so that costume jewelry became an indispensable accessory.

cotyledon Gardening

General
Seed leaves that one may see once a seed has been germinated. They store nutrients to assist in the growth and life of the plant.

Counter Calligraphy

General

In calligraphy, the counter is the space inside a letter (often it is white in color); it is the region enclosed in a letter in numeric letterforms, lowercase, and uppercase.  

Counter Space Calligraphy

General

In calligraphy, a counter space is a space within a letter.

counterflashing Carpentry

Product
Flashing placed on chimneys in order to shield the roof-line from shingle flashing and protect it from moisture build-up.

country styles Interior Decorating

General
A rustic, homey and tasteful interior design and furniture style popular because of its lack of sophistication.

Coutil Fashion

General

A firm, long-lasting linen or cotton that contains a herringbone twill weave.  Coutil is used for undergarments. 

couture Interior Decorating

General
The creating, selling and designing of stylish custommade women's clothing.

cove molding Carpentry

Product
A concave molding often placed where two pieces intersect at a right angle.

cover glass Welding

General
Protection glass put into goggles and welding helmets to prevent weld splatter from getting on other objects.

Coverage Film

General

A term used to explain the structure of breaking down a script into the many shots that permit a scene to be cut together.  Coverage covers the way in which the scenes will work together cohesively.  However, it does not cover the ways in which each scene will be shot in an aesthetic manner that is appropriate in order for the scenes to work together. 

covered electrode Welding

General
Also known as slick electrode. An arc-welding electrode layered with flux to shield the molten weld puddle from the air prior to the puddle solidifying.

coverlet Quilting

General
A type of bedspread that is woven and is often either created out of a heavy fabric or quilted.

Crackle Glaze Painting

Technical

A type of traditional glaze that involves layering water-based and oil-based paints that dry at different time intervals.  The term also refers to pushing a color onto the top layer of varnish; this technique creates thin cracks over the paint application's surface. 

cranberry Cooking

General

Cranberries are a fruit with a hard texture and tart taste.  They are cooked and then sliced or pounded to make relishes.  Cranberries rhave an excellent storage reputation - they retain their shape and flavor for several weeks when refrigerated or frozen.

cranberry bean Cooking

General

A off-white bean with reddish streaks.  Their flavor is rather nutty and they often replace white or red beans in dishes.

crater Welding

General
A depression at the end of the weld bead resulting from excessive heat applied while stopping the weld.

crater crack Welding

General
A crack located in the crater at the base of the TIG-weld bead. The bead results from excessive heat applied while stopping the weld and pulling the shielding gas prior to the weld solidifying.

Cravat Fashion

General

A cravat is a tie or neckcloth.  This was the first men’s neckwear used in the 1660s.  Over time, the cravat became the modern necktie of today. 

crayon art Art Materials and General Art Terms

General

Crayon art is artwork made or created with crayon wax.  There are several varieties of crayons - including conte crayon and wax crayon.  Example of crayon artwork can be seen from artwork individuals do as children.  Some artists use crayons professionally to make fine art.  Tiona Marco is one such artist.  She creates realistic artwork using crayola crayons.

crazy patchwork (quilt) Quilting

General
Non-uniform shaped pieces of fabric that are stitched together on a muslin foundation in any order; each piece is hand embroidered and the quilt is not always quilted.

crème fraiche Cooking

General

A dairy product that is sweetened with sugar and whipped up to create a nice addition to a dessert.

cream Cooking

General

The mix an ingredient rapidly in order to soften it and ensure it is well blended.

cream cheese Cooking

General

A spreadable and creamy cheese that is popular in many dips and frostings and many other recipes. 

cream of tartar Cooking

General

A white powder containing a high acidic level that can be made into baking powder.

cremini Cooking

General

A domesticated brown mushroom with a nice mild flavor. 

crepe Cooking

General

Thin French pancakes that are often filled with sweet additions.  Crepe batter is best made a couple hours before frying in order for the batter to develop its ideal consistency. 

Crest Artist Anatomy

General

A term describing a type of bone convex form, a crest is an edge similar to the edge of a cliff.

crib quilt Quilting

General
A small quilt that is created for a small child or baby.

Crinoline Fashion

General

A petticoat designed in order to create skirts of fantastic volume popular during the middle of the nineteenth century.  The term crinoline is the word for petticoat made of woven fabric from horsehair (crin) and linen (lin).  The cage frame crinoline originated in the 1850s from whalebones/steel hoops. 

cripple jack Carpentry

General
Also known as a cripple rafter. A type of rafter that finishes each end with valley and hip rafters. The rafter does not meet at either the ridge or the plate edges.

cripple stud Carpentry

General
A type of stud that is placed over a wall opening. It elongates from the header over the opening to a top late. It may also be placed under a wall opening in the middle of a rough sill and sole plate.

Critical End! Film

General

A label attached to a film can once it is turned into a lab if the roll ended during an essential shot of a scene.  It is a precautionary label that lets the lab know to make sure to go to the very last frame in the footage.

Crohns disease Fermentation

General

Crohn’s disease is a type of autoimmune disease that may manifest itself anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract.  Symptoms of Crohn’s disease include on-going diarrhea, night sweats, weight loss, fever, constipation, abdominal pain and cramps, abnormal menstrual bleeding, fever, rectal bleeding, fatigue, lethargy and loss of appetite.  Those suffering from Crohn’s disease are frequently helped by the daily consumption of lacto-fermented foods such as homemade yogurt, homemade kefir and sauerkraut due to the beneficial good bacteria in these food items.  The good bacteria accomplishes a wide variety of functions, including fighting bad bacteria in the intestines, and creating an environment not compatible with pathogenic survival. 

 

Crop Marks Graphic Design

General

Crop marks show the edge of a printed piece on vertical, horizontal and mechanical lines. 

Cropping Graphic Design

Technical

Cropping is used in pieces of art in order to remove extra parts of an image; cropping is frequently used in photography.

croquette Cooking

General

A kind of hamburger created from ingredients that do not include ground meat.  It is not important to bread it before cooking.

Cross Bar Calligraphy

General

In calligraphy, the cross bar is the horizontal stroke that creates the section of a letter.  For example, the letter H contains a cross bar.

cross contour lines Drawing

General

Cross contour lines are parallel lines that curve over an object’s surface in a vertical or horizontal manner (or both) and reveal the item’s surface characteristics.  Cross contour lines are similar to wire framing used in 3D design. 

Cross Hatching Drawing

General

Cross-hatching is a drawing method that is used to shade an object or figure; the method utilizes a series of criss-crossing lines that are built up progressively into more complicated tones.  Several varieties of cross-hatching may be used but most commonly for developing shadow and depth.

Cross Modulation Test Film

General

Also known as a “cross mod.”  It is a test the mixing house does along with a lab to ensure the optical track is properly exposed and developed; the test is done to make sure there is the best sound quality possible. 

Cross Processing Film

Technical

A method frequently used by still photographers that involves color reversal film stock that is developed as a negative.  If a positive print is struck from this negative, unique vivid colors will result.

cross-hatching Quilting

General
A group of parallel quilting lines that form a group of diamonds or a grid of squares.

Crosshatching Drawing

Technical

Sets of closely aligned parallel lines that crisscross at angles to each other.  Crosshatching is used to create tone and to model forms. 

crosswise grain Quilting

General
The perpendicular threads in a fabric to the selvages. Lengthwise grain contains less stretch than the crosswise grain of a fabric.

croutons Cooking

General

Pieces or slices of bread that are dried in the oven.  They may include seasonings or simply be plain.  They are popular as toppings on salads.

Crystal Sync Film

Technical

A method of recording sync sound; it involves running a camera at an appropriate speed using a quartz crystal run motor (the quartz is similar to the one inserted into a quartz watch).  A tape recorder records its pilottone through the use of an internal quartz crystal pilottone generator.

crystallized ginger Cooking

General

Ginger that has been cooked in a sugary syrup and then covered in coarse sugar. 

Cubism Art Styles/Movements

General

1908-1914
Cubism emerged in the year of 1907 in the city of Paris through the efforts of Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso.  The movement embraced the idea of viewing objects in a new way: by breaking down subject matter and redefining it through multiple points of view at the same time.  The popularity of the movement grew as artists saught to find a new way to represent reality.  The first phase of the movement known as the Analytic phase tried to recreate objects as how the mind saw them – as opposed to the eyes.  The second phase, titled the Synthetic phase, sought to recreate objects in simple forms and brighter colors.  Key artists that continued to develop the ideas of Cubism include: Robert Delaunay, Francis Picabia, Jean Metzinger, Marcel Duchamp and Fernand Léger.
 

Cue Sheets Film

Product

A guide for the mixer to follow in order to find the sounds on the tracks during the mix.  Cue sheets are organized as a grid; every track creates a column and time following rows that are measured in 35mm film footage.  If the footage is 16mm, one needs to change the footage to 35mm. 

cultivar Gardening

General
A kind of plant that is chosen not from the wild, but from cultivation. When it is multiplied, it keeps its specific identity.

cultivate Gardening

Technical
Breaking the soil surface to get rid of weeds and aerate the ground.

cultivation Gardening

General
Areas of the ground that are not wild, but inhabited by humans.

cumin Cooking

General

A spice that contains a rather bitter taste and intense aroma.  It is common in many items such as stews and curries.

Cuneiform Calligraphy

General

Cuneiform is the first systematic form of writing.  The name originally comes from the wedge-shaped strokes created as one inscribes on soft clay.  In Latin, the word cuneus means wedge.

cupola Carpentry

General
A type of structure containing four sides and vents that is placed on top of a roof. A cupola enhances a structure and encourages ventilation.

curing Fermentation

Technical

Curing involves a variety of food preservation and flavoring methods made possible by creating a mixture of sugar, nitrates, nitrate and/or salt.  A number of curing methods include cooking, smoking and flavoring.  Dehydrating food was one of the first methods of curing. 

 

currant Cooking

General

Little grape-like berries that may be black, white or red in their raw form.  The ingredient "dried currants" recipes often call for are actually dried zante grape.  Raisins may be substituted for dried currants but moisture should be added to the recipe if this is done because raisins absorb moisture. 

curry powder Cooking

General

A combination of not more then twenty spices.  Curry powder is best used right away because it loses its intensity quickly.  It is often used in many Indian dishes.

Cursive Calligraphy

General

Cursive is a form of handwriting that involves fast and informal writing.  The letters are quickly made and they are joined together.  A writing utensil does not lose contact with the paper when one writes in cursive. 

curtain wall Carpentry

General
A type of wall that is placed in the middle of columns or piers and is usually nonbearing.

Curvilinear perspective Art Perspective

Technical

A perspective view in which straight lines appear to be curved.  Close-up and wide angle views commonly relate to the perspective. 

Custom Background Print Making

General

An new animation background made for the express purpose of embellishing a particular animation cel.

Cut 1 Film

General

A phrase used by a director to signify the end of the filming of a shot.  The term cut 1 also refers to shots at the frame-line or place where the shots are separated.  The term may also refer to final work of editing a film that is known as “the edit” or “the cut.”

Cutaway Film

General

A type of shot that cuts away from action going on to focus on something else – like a landscape or a detail of something.  Used appropriately with logic in mind, it can be a useful shot to help the film editor in a difficult break in coverage or continuity. 

Cutlines Graphic Design

General

Cutlines are the description text that gives illustration information.  They are also referred to as legends or captions.  The term “title-captions” is often mistakenly used for cutlines; title-captions are illustration headings that are included as part of the piece of art.

cutting Gardening

Technical
A section of a plant that is removed and planted to make a new plant.

cutting line Quilting

General
The line that a shape is cut from a piece of material.

cytokines Fermentation

General

Cytokines are tiny protein molecules that are secreted by many cells and fit under the group of signaling molecules that are widely used in cellular communication.