Shorthand for point of view shot. It is a shot that is taken from the point of view from one of the characters. It allows the film viewers to see things how an actor is seeing them. The shot is useful to achieve a believable reaction shot.
Packet aggregation in networking is the combining of several packets together in the efforts to reduce the number of server requests by the transmission of packets.
The ingredients inside a coating that keep the pigment particles floating and join them to the substrate; binders are made up of resins, such as alkyd, latex and oils. The properties of the binder affect several of the paint's capabilities - such as adhesion and color retention.
A surface area where a painter is able to freely mix and squeeze paint before applying to paint to a piece of artwork. The term “palette” is also a term that refers to the choice of colors an artist is working with.
The horizontal movement of a camera along an axis. The move can go from left to right or vice versa. Similar to a dolly shot, a camera turns on an axis (instead of across an area). A pan is not the same thing as a tilt. One should use the word tilt instead of saying something like, “pan up.”
A background, drawing or animation cel with measurements up to 12 inches by 30 inches.
The Pantone matching system is a system that functions as a method to distinguish and blend match colors. Designers are given more than seven hundred colors to choose from; printers are given the necessary recipes to create these colors.
PMS is the standard color-matching method that graphic designers and printers use for materials – such as ink and paper. Percentage mixtures of various primary inks make up a standard color called a “PMS color.”
A thin roll of tape. It tapes down a film’s ends when one is editing. Paper tape is not the same thing as splicing tape, and it should not be put on raw stock.
Papyrus is the first form of paper. It is a rough material created by hammering strips of fiber together that come from the stem of the papyrus plant.
A method of cutting between a couple of scenes or stories that are happening at the same time.
Parallel Lines are lines that run in the same direction; they never touch each other because the distance running between them is always the same. In perspective drawing, lines that are parallel converge in the distance at a vanishing point.
Lines that never meet, and always remain the same distance apart.
Parallel perspective is a type of linear perspective. All categories of linear perspective include a horizon line and a stationary point (the position of the observer). In one-point perspective, only one vanishing point exists; lines radiate outwardly from this point, and perpendicular lines meet at this point. Parallel perspective is the same as one-point perspective.
Parchment is a type of writing material made from the innermost layer of sheepskin.
A paste-up is the preparation of mechanicals. In regard to desktop publishing, this involves the page-assembly software that allows the user to accomplish the electronic pasteup. In terms of traditional publishing, it involves the layout and pasting of type and graphics onto a board.
A mixture of gum, water and pigments combined and then pressed to create a stick for artists to use. The sticks can be used over a variety of surfaces, including paper and canvas. There are different kinds of pastels, including oil pastels and chalk pastels. The term also refers to the name of artworks created using the medium of pastels.
The natural effects of time and air exposure on a surface. Specifically, it may refer to the greenish brown effect that takes place on bronze pieces from exposure and aging. This term may also apply to the build up of characteristics that occur on leather products over time.
Part of the shoulder girdle, the pectoralis major is positioned at the medial half of the clavicle, the lateral surface of the sternum, and the top of the abdominal aponeurosis. It is a ridge on the front of the humerus beneath the head. It is responsible for moving the arm over and across the body and allowing the upper arm to rotate inwardly.
In calligraphy, a pen angle is the angle that a nib connects with the paper in relation to the base line.
A tool used to create drawings. It may consist of colored wax, charcoal, or graphite that is in the form of a stick. The stick’s end point may be sharpened and held under a surface of wood. It may also be placed in a mechanical holder for better handling.
A number of original animation pencil drawings all grouped on a single sheet. The sheet is used to show the many positions and expressions of an animated character.
A certain state of paintings that occurs when pigments containing lead become transparent from aging. The process reveals layers of paint applied earlier on.
Shorthand for perforations. Perforations are the sprocket holes on a section of film footage.
Part of the lower leg, the peroneus longus includes the lateral condyle of the tibia, the lateral surface of the fibula, and the front of the head of the fibula. It is located at a tendon running down the posterior side of the ankle and under the foot to the first metatarsal. It is responsible for pointing the foot, bringing the bottom of the foot from side-to-side.
Perspective drawing was developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1377 - 1446) and Leon Baptista Alberti (1404 - 1472), two architects from the 15th century. It was one of the main ideas behind Western art until the Cubists started to question it during the early 1900s. There are two main types of perspective drawing; they include linear perspective and aerial perspective. Linear perspective is perspective as it relates to the arrangement of shapes in space. Aerial perspective is perspective as it relates to changes of the atmosphere through the use of tones and color. “Perspective is to painting what the bridle is to the horse, the rudder to a ship...There are three aspects to perspective. The first has to do with how the size of objects seems to diminish according to distance; the second, the manner in which colors change the farther away they are from the eye; the third defines how objects ought to be finished less carefully the farther away they are.” (Quote by Leonardo da Vinci)
A powerful screw-in light bulb. It is used along with a clamp light fixture and ranges from 250 watts to 500 watts.
A pica is a measurement utilized in typography for the widths of columns as well as other space measurements in a page layout. There are about six picas to one inch; twelve points are contained within one pica.
A pictogram is a type of pictorial symbol. It symbolizes a certain image or object.
A picture frame refers to the horizontal and vertical dimensions of a picture.
A picture plane is the two-dimensional surface upon which a painting/drawing is created. A window can be understood as a picture plane as one looks out to the scene beyond it.
A round, rather hefty disc that contains a lighting stud. A pigeon assists to position a light on the floor. It can go a lot lower than what a stand can normally be positioned to do. Basically, a pigeon works like a hi hat – but for lights.
Pigment inks are pigments of color that are ground vey finely and then suspended inside a liquid in order to create an ink. The pigment creates a lightfast material or ink that is more resistant to fading. Pigment based inks being made today may be over one hundred years lightfast. However, the lightfastness is determined by various factors such as the paper type, the storage conditions, and the place producing the ink.
Colored particles combined with adhesive binders in order to create paint.
A surface that is made from carpet threads; the threads may be manipulated in a variety of ways to create the "look." Threads may be twisted, looped, cut...etc to create the desired effect.
Also known as "average pile yarn weight." It is the pile yarn weight within a carpet's unit volume. Carpets are denser when the turfts are nearer to each other. It is desirable for a carpet to have high pile density because the durability of the carpet will be greater.
A 60 Hz signal reference that is used for sync sound filming (50 Hz in Europe). It is recorded on an audio tape in order to make possible transfer to magazine exactly at sound speed.
A pixel is the smallest unit of measurement that a device can work with. Usually the term “pixel” is used in reference to display monitors since a pixel is the smallest area of phosphor that a screen can light up. If you enlarge an image on a computer screen, you can view the individual color pixels that make up that image.
Planar analysis refers to the structural analysation of a form. Rather than using curves, the form is described using major planes.
Plastic refers to the representation of three-dimensionality or action that occurs in a picture in relation to the flat picture plane. Plastic space is not the same thing as perspective space.
A plastic leader is placed at the tail and head of a print. It is longer-lasting than emulsion leader and cheaper. One determent is that a plastic leader cannot be cement spliced and therefore cannot be used for the negative.
Ingredients mixed into paint in order to increase the paint’s fluidity or to bring it to a state in which it can be quickly dissolved.
A platemark is simply an indentation that occurs at the edge of a printed image. It results from the plate pushing itself into the paper while it passes through the printing press. These kinds of impressions are made in etching and intaglio print processes in which that image is on a metal plate.
usual method of building that limits all stud height to only one floor (unlike balloon framing)
A French term that means “open air.” It is applied to paintings that are completed outside right in front of the subject matter.
A point is a measurement in typography that designates leading, type size and other space details within the layout of a page. There are about seventy points to one inch; one pica is twelve points.
A point of view in drawing is simply what position an observer is in relation to the objects in a picture. The point of view is determined by where a viewer is stationed in relation to everything else he sees. For example, if one has a birds-eye view, one will see objects beneath him. If one has a normal view, objects will appear how he normally sees them. If one has a worms-eye view, objects will appear much larger than normal.
A long-lasting kind of film that is very difficult to rip. It takes skill and practice to splice polyester base. It cannot be used as original material, because it cannot be cement spliced. The benefit of polyester base is that it lasts awhile and can tolerate usage well – a fact that lends it well to release prints.
A number of monomers joined together to create repeating forms.
wall that is framed between the foundation and the first floor at the structure’s perimeter
Pop Art was characterized with a focus on popular culture that expanded upon the prosperity of the post-war society in the 1950s and 1960s. The movement started in the USA but also expanded to England. The movement used subject matter such as comic strips, soda bottles, and soup cans and turned them into icons of the day. The movement was actually a child of Dadaism; it sarcastically made fun of the art world through its use of urban images, products from grocery stores, and the mass media. Pop Art was about communicating how these objects are themselves works of art. Anything seemed game to include in a Pop artist’s artwork. Andy Warhol brought the movement to the forefront when he made screen prints of the highly recognizable Coke bottle, Campbell soup tin, and famous Hollywood stars. By taking the techniques and methods of the commercial world, Warhol was able to make artwork that appeared machine-made and sleek. Unlike their introverted painting counterparts, Pop artists were extroverted in their sharing of their images with the public. The movement was immensely successful and played a big influence on artists and the public. Other key artists beside Warhol include Claes Oldenburg, Roy Lichtenstein, Roy Hamilton, Jasper Johns, and Robert Rauschenberg.
Elements may be positioned several ways in CSS, and several rules are enforced that govern the containing block of the element and how it is presented in that element. There are 4 kinds of positioning, including: 1) static positioning 2) relative positioning 3) absolute positioning and 4) fixed positioning
(1880-1920) Post Impressionism refers to an extension of Impressionism that embraced not limiting itself to just the style characterized by Impressionism. Roger Fry coined the term for artists that included among others Georges Seurat, Paul Gauguin, Vincent van Gogh, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, and Paul Cézanne. With the exception of Van Gogh, they were French artists who had participated in Impressionism but gradually had moved into their own unique style of creating artwork. Each expressed theirselves differently, but they all stayed true to using the pure, bright colors and short brushstrokes of Impressionism. Post-Impressionism played a significant role in much of the artwork created in the early 1900s and beyond. Most Post-Impressionists would exhibit at the same time, however each tended to paint by himself. It was Van Gogh and Gauguin that sought to fill their artwork with their own spiritual and individual creativity. Gauguin eventually rejected naturalism in favor of what he saw as a more truer aesthetic in art which involved a thick outline and flat color in his paintings. He painted Tahitians using harmonious, often unusual, color combinations. Van Gogh is credited with sincerely using his art to convey his passionate emotions. He started out using the short brushstrokes of the Impressionists, but eventually turned to wavy, alive lines of color that were distorted. His paintings were filled with brilliant color and heavy paint. Not long after Post-Impressionism, Fauvism and Cubism came into play which used Post-Impressionistic ideas of creating intense emotions through the use of color and manipulation of line. Other key Post-Impressionist painters include Auguste Rodin and
The term posterior is a descriptive word regarding the locations of the body. Posterior refers to the back-side of the figure.
Posterization is the decrease of the amount of gray scales in an image or graphic in order to create a high-contrast effect.
Postmodernism refers to a wide spectrum of progressions in the fields of philosophy, architecture, art, literature, and culture, and critical theory that grew in relation to modernism. Postmodernists were disillusioned with the repercussions of WWII. They stayed away from anything that might lend itself to containing a focused hierarchy or organization element. Rather, they attached themselves to the idea of being contradictory, diverse, being unified, and being complex in the extreme. Many significant changes were happening socially, culturally and economically in the 1960s. Postmodernism in art stemmed from these changes. In fact, the term was first officially used in 1949 to explain the discontent felt in the architecture of the times, which in turn led to the postmodern architecture movement. The movement then spread to other movements – including art. In relation to art, Postmodernism is an encompassing term that refers to a range of cultural attitudes that embrace the idea of approaching art in a more spontaneous, more populist way. It covers a wide spectrum of art and artists. More than anything, it is more like an attitude and approach to creativity rather than a specific manner or style of artwork. Examples of well-known Post Modernist artists include: Jasper Johns,Frank Stella, Donald Judd, Bridget Riley, and Joseph Beuys.
Pounce is a type of fine powder. It is functions as a preventative measure to stop ink from spreading on paper that is not sized. It is also used to get the surface of parchment ready to take on ink.
A photo flood-related kind of bulb. It is included within a shot. Sometimes the term is used instead of photo flood; however, practical refers in particular to a light placed within the shot.
An art movement begun by Holman Hunt and John Everett Millais. They formed a group of artists that desired to emulate painting styles used before the time of Raphael. The initial group of Pre-Raphaelites included: Rossetti, his brother William, James Collinson, Thomas Woolner, Hunt and Millais. The members focused on studying medieval scenes and using powerful symbolism in their work in the desire to inspire others to thoughts of nobleness. At first critics thought that by the name the group was insinuating that they were better artists than Raphael. However, critic John Ruskin saw in their ideas a good thing which helped the group to succeed. The group eventually broke up when Millais' 'Ophelia' (1850-1851) was exhibited with great success at the Academy Exhibition.
Another Brotherhood was created that was founded in Oxford. The group, made up of Rossetti, William Morris and Edward Burne-Jones, created paintings filled with ethereal beautiful women. Millais and Hunt went off in their own individual directions, though they continued the practice of following the ideas of the first group. Other artists caught onto the ideas of the Pre-Raphaelites such as Maxwell Armfield and Frank Cadogan Cowper. Eventually movement fizzled out and other art styles replaced it around the 1920s.
Excess time at the start of a sound take in order to take into account the slow, lock-up time of a few post production time code mechanisms.
A prebiotic is a non-digestible fermented food substance that fosters the proliferation and activity of good bacteria in the intestinal tract. When a prebiotic and a probiotic are put together, they create a “symbiotic.” Kefir and yogurt are considered to be symbiotic because not only do they host live, beneficial bacteria, but they also contain the fuel or food that the probiotic bacteria needs in order to survive and thrive in the digestive tract.
The bottom side of wallpaper that has been prepared with an adhesive to attach to a wall. When moisted, it adheres to a wall's surface.
A material that stops fungi, borers and insects from deteriorating wood.
A material that inhibits microorganisms from growing in organic matter.
A section of a camera’s internal system. It is positioned on the side of the film away from the gate. Spring-loaded and smooth, the plate supports the film on the film plane. It works as a kind of brake and assists to keep the film steady as the film is exposed.
Also known as minimal art or ABC art, primary structure art stems from a movement in the 1960's in which 3D structures of basic forms and flat colors are made, indicating the planes, lines and forms of geometry. The artistic flair and interpretation usually linked with creativity are put aside to such a degree that the artist is often able to have an artwork created by a method of craftmanship. Tinsmithing and cabinetmaking are examples of this type of art. In essence, the artist is viewed as the originator, overseer and designer of the piece. The primarily impetus of this movement has been the increase of standard design classes in art schools in which simple geometric shapes are analyzed indepthly in regards to their use in industrial design as well as for their own sake. Los Angeles and New York have been the main hub of activity for this movement.
A single focal length, telephoto, normal or wide lens (unlike a zoom lens that contains a variable focal length). Prime lens are purchased in a set of various focal lengths; they are quicker, clearer and can magnify things closer than a zoom lens can.
A whole number that is greater than 1 - and has only itself and 1 as factors.
A surfacing material used to coat a support to get it ready for paint application.
Paints (either oil-based or water-based) that function as sealers on unpainted surfaces. Primers stop the layers of paint from seeping into a surface.
A copy of the original film footage. A print is generally created through contact printing.
The film footage a lab uses to create prints (copies). Generally, print stock is of a longer pitch than camera stock so it can be placed right up along the camera stock on the printing device. Camera stock is faster than print stock (print stock has an A.S.A. of around 12),
A printer font includes font outline masters or high-resolution bitmaps that put characters down onto the printed page (versus to display on the screen).
The likelihood or chance of an event occuring. Can be expressed generally (i.e. high or low) - or as a percentage anywhere from 0 to 100%.
Probiotics are live microorganisms that can benefit the health of their host. They control the overgrowth of bad bacteria in the intestinal tract and promote healthy microflora. The term “probiotics” was coined by Stillwell and Lilly in 1965. Probiotics can be found in fermented items such as kefir, yogurt and sauerkraut.
A term describing a type of bone convex form, a process is a finger-like shape that extends outwardly.
Process color separation is used to re-create color photographs. Halftone dots of the process colors (including magenta, yellow, black and cyan) are superimposed to create many different kinds of hues.
A drawing made for the creation or development of an animated film’s production. The drawing may or may not be used in the final film piece.
A profile refers to a particular color setting used with various papers and ink sets. It is used to make the appropriate color reproduction of an image. It changes one color space into another color space.
Progressive rhythm is one of the five types of visual rhythm. It occurs when the positive and negative shapes in a design are changed every single time the design is repeated. An example of progressive rhythm is found in the cloud formations in the sky.
To pronate as it relates to muscles means to turn downward in regard to the forearm. A pronator is a muscle that pronates.
Proportion refers to the correction depiction of the all the parts related to each other in a shape/form within a realistic painting or drawing. Proportion lends a sense of balance and harmony to a piece of artwork. One may decide to distort the proportions within an artwork to create a certain effect on the viewer.
Proportionally spaced type is a kind of typeface that involves the horizontal space of characters being dictated by the character’s shape, as well as the characters around it.
A term describing a type of bone convex form, a protuberance is a bigger, rather round bump.
The term proximal is a descriptive word regarding the locations of the body. The term proximal relates to a section on a limb that is nearer to the trunk in distance.
The publisher is the marketing and printer company that creates and distributes the limited edition prints for the artist. Artists may be the publisher of their artwork they have the correct equipment.
A pull down is done in order to line up the sound with a video transfer of picture if one needs to transfer sync sound to video. The process involves the transfer of sound slowed from the speed of the film. There are 24 film frames/second and 29.97 video frames/second. This correlates to 23.98 film frames/second.
A kind of processing that involves developing the film for a shorter amount of time than usual in order to accommodate for planed overexposure of the film.
A pull quote is a short phrase from the body text that is set apart from the rest of the text with a box, rules and/or a screen and increased in size. It is placed in the center of a paragraph in order to add interest and to stress the text set apart.
Pull up refers to the method of placing the sound 26 frames in front of the picture when creating a print. The term may also refer to the transfer of the sound from video sped up from video speed of 29.97 video frames/second to 24 film frames/second. This transfer has to be completed if the optical track is created after having mixed in video. The term may also refer to the transfer of the first 26 frames of sound on a reel. The frames are spliced on the sound of the previous real; this is done to prevent loss of sound once the film is printed with the sound pulled up. When the reels are attached together, 26 frames of the sound are removed.
A segment of a camera’s movement that involves advancing the footage from an exposed frame to the following unexposed frame; this happens when the shutter of the camera is shut.
Transfer of consumable electrode that occurs when droplets form at end of electrode with high current, and then cease forming at low current. Also referred to as intermittent spray transfer.
A punctuation block includes multiple consecutive lines that finish with punctuation and cause the right margin to appear uneven in right-aligned or right-justified text.
A kind of processing that involves developing film for an extended amount of time in order to accommodate for planned underexposure. Individual scenes cannot be pushed, only complete rolls can be pushed.
A putto (plural putti) is a plumb, often clotheless male child; such infants are frequently included in artwork from the 1400s. Sometimes putti have wings, but they are not the same as cherubim which are angels. Putti are non-religious in nature and represent a secular passion. When a putto is used to portray a cupid, it is referred to as an amorino. On the other hand, putto gradually came to be known as a symbol of God's omniprescence in Baroque art. In the ancient classical world of art, infants with wings where thought to impact people's lives. Putti were generally not used during the Middle Ages. However, during the 1420s a man named Donatello from Florence brought putti back in a big way and is credited with reinventing putti during the time of the Renaissance. He used putti in art with Christian messages, sometimes using them as angels playing music.
A synthetic resin used in varnishes and works as a painting medium. Its full name is polyvinyl acetate.
Pyrometric devices utilized to asses the conditions of heat during the firing of ceramic materials. The cones give a visual portrayal of when the items have attained a level of maturity (related to temperature and time). They are made out of clay and glaze material.