An abbreviation for music and effects. An M&E track is created after a mix for a large production. It is used if a film is dubbed into more than one language. The track makes it possible for a one-time creation of the music and effects section of the film.
M.E. Chevreul (Director of Dyes at the Gobelins tapestry works in France) wrote The Law of Simultaneous Contrast of Color in 1839. He included within his work about how the eye perceives color in multiple combinations. He made the point that it becomes more and more difficult for the viewer to pinpoint the focal point of the composition when the picture includes more color and objects. Hiis observations helped to begin the Impressionists’ painting discoveries with light and color.
An abbreviation for “Mit Out Sound.” It refers to a film, sequence or shot that is taken minus the sound (the sound is added at a later time). The term comes from a Hollywood story of a German director. He requested that a shot be filmed “mit out sound.” And his camera assistant responded to his directions by writing “M.O.S.” down on a slate.
A type of lens that allows the cameraperson to get very close details of an object. Using macro causes the distances on the focusing ring to no longer be applicable.
Mag Stock is a section of film surfaced with an emulsion of magnetic oxide rather than silver halides. It is the same size as film and contains perforations. All sound is moved to mag stock during the editing process that is then passed along an editing machine that pairs it exactly with the picture. One frame of sound is paired with one frame of picture.
A camera will generally have 2-3 magazines attached to it; a magazine holds 1-2 chambers that contain 400 or 1,000 feet of film. The chambers are light-proof.
Abakanowicz is a Polish sculptor who has made breakthroughs in creating sculptures created from woven fabrics. Work from her efforts have been imitated both in the United States and in Europe.
Mahou shojo translates to “magical girl.” The term refers to a genre that is directed at young girls – whether they be teens or soon-to-be teens.
An art movement begun in 1520 and ending around the 1600s. The movement sprang up as a result of the solving of representational problems that artists had puzzled over for centuries. During the Early Renaissance and High Renaissance artists observed from nature in order to create their characteristic styles. As knowledge was learned to solve certain representational issues, artists were able to focus more on style than on nature to guide their particular tastes in artwork. The result was a “manner.” In the Mannerist paintings, several rules went out the window. For example, artists allowed spaces in their work to be ambiguous, there did not need to exist a focal point, and figures were often manipulated through such things as distortions or unnatural twisting of the limbs to suit the taste of the artist. Filled with allegories and colors that clash with one another, Mannerist paintings did not seek to bring serenity to the viewers, but rather a feeling of restlessness. Key Mannerist artists include: Andrea del Sarto, Jacopo da Pontormo, and Correggio
Manuscript refers to a document or book that is written by hand (as opposed to being made by a printing process).
Clapsticks are struck together to make a sync mark for a film shot. Mark may also refer to tape placed on the floor to show an actor where he/she is suppose to stand.
A mark in a drawing or painting refers to an impression on the picture plane; it is often made to create the illusion of something – such as an object’s surface texture.
A process using glue to join a painting the size of a mural onto a wall; the painting may be created on fabric or paper.
Mass in a drawing or painting refers to the weight or the density of a figure or object.
Mass marketed art is that that art made for the masses. A painting, for example, may be completed assembly-line style in which several people work on the same painting, with each person doing a certain part of the painting. Mass marketed art is usually of inferior quality and is often reproductions of trendy styles, certain color combinations, and well-known pieces of art.
Massed text is text written in a compressed script or heavy script that contains only a small amount of spacing between the lines and words.
Massing as it relates to drawing/painting refers to the blocking in of shapes with the aim of creating an arrangement of visual weight in the picture plane.
Also known as mass color. Masstone is the undiluted pigment color of a paint.
A single shot that includes the complete scene from its start to the finish. Usually a master shot is filmed and then the rest of the other kinds of shots (close-ups...etc) are then shot later.
A masthead is the credit box that lists information such as the names of designers, illustrators, writers, editors, sponsors, as wells as pieces of information like publication office location details, and subscription information. The masthead is headed by the name of the publication.
A type of cardboard often used to showcase pieces of artwork. A window cut is removed from its center and it is placed over the piece of artwork. It is then attached to a backboard, such as foam board, to sandwich the artwork and protect it.
A square shade that is placed right over the lens. It is held up by two rods joined to the camera body. Usually the box contains filter holders for the square glass filters that can be useful when one is putting together a matte shot.
A type of paint that is water-based that features a flat looking finish that does not reflect light.
A water-based paint that dilutes color. It is often spread over a surface's top coat as a protective layer.
Also known as a split screen, matte shots can be completed as opticals. A matte shot is a double exposure that masks off a section of the frame for each exposure, as well as the opposite area for a second exposure.
Matted size refers to the overall size of a mat that holds the original or print.
Medium-density fiberboard created from wood particles adhered together with resin.
Loose non-structured lines of stitching that do not usually touch each other.
The measurement of a line’s length (including lines that do not contain characters - like a partial line) that is designated in picas. The length of a line is termed a “columnmeasure” if the text is set in columns.
The term medial is a descriptive word regarding the locations of the body. The term medial signifies moving towards the midline.
A time of artwork that was characterized by iconographic painting illustrations of Biblical scenes. The work emerged from the early Christian church influence as well as the Roman Empire heritage. The combination of the two lent a kind of “Barbarian” artistic culture in Northern Europe because it combined with Christian and pagan art.
Early Christian artists of the period took ideas from Roman carvings, metalwork, mosaics and paintings. Much of their work is classified as being completed around 200-500, at which time the Byzantine style started to grow rapidly.
Byzantine art is often considered to be the best artwork developed in the Middle Ages because of its craftsmanship and the quality of materials used. Much of the artwork was destroyed, including many of the fine mosaics and frecos that decorated the doomed churches of the day.
Celtic art in the Middle Ages developed among the people of Britain and Ireland from around the 5th-12th centuries. In the 7th and 8th centuries, there grew a combining of the Anglo-Saxons and Germanic traditions, which in turn created a style of artwork known as “Hiberno-Saxon” (Insular art).
From 300-900 there existed what is known as the Migration Period in the Middle Ages. During this time art made from Eastern-European and Germanic peoples emerged. Several different styles of artwork were then visible, including the Polychrome style, Animal style and Christian artwork.
From 800 to the 11th century, there began Pre-Romanesque art that started when Charlemagne was crowned king. The classical influences of Roman art impacted the artists of this time resulting in Carolingian art – which in turn brought about Gothic and Romanesque art.
Romanesque art is characterized by sturdy buildings with thick walls and rounded arches and windows. The ideas for the structural characteristics were taken from ancient Rome, which is why the art period is called “Romanesque” today.
Gothic art first came about with Gothic architecture in 1140 – a divergent from Romanesque architecture. When the Abbey Church of S. Denis was being renovated in 1144, Gothic sculpture was born. The style grew in Europe and started to replace the Romanesque style. Eventually, Gothic art was mixed into Renaissance art, at which time painting on panels and in fresco became significant in the arts, as well as prints.
Also happening during the Middle Ages were developments in Islamic art. Illustrated manuscripts, textiles, ceramics, metalwork and glass were all forms of Islamic arts being developed. Muslim artists in the Near East, Islamic Spain, and Northern Africa worked in the early formative stage of the period from 600-900 and then diverged in a variety of styles starting in 900 depending on the region in which the artist worked.
A type of water-based paint that is used for its decorative effect on surfaces. It can be purchased in several different forms, including in a pot, spray can or tube.
A mezzotint is a particular screen that creates joined, rather dusty-looking dots.
Middle ground is the space located between the background and the foreground in a painting or drawing.
The midline is an axis of the body that separates the right and left sides of the body. Any item that follows perpendicular to the midline or longitudinal axis is regarded as being horizontal. Items that move diagonally are called oblique. And any items that move parallel to the midline are regarded as vertical.
Migration refers to the movement of a dye or pigment in a dried film.
Also known as primary structure and ABC art, minimal art stems from a movement in the 1960's in which 3D structures of basic forms and flat colors are made, indicating the planes, lines and forms of geometry. The artistic flair and interpretation usually linked with creativity are put aside to such a degree that the artist is often able to have an artwork created by a method of craftmanship. Tinsmithing and cabinetmaking are examples of this type of art. In essence, the artist is viewed as the originator, overseer and designer of the piece. The primarily impetus of this movement has been the increase of standard design classes in art schools in which simple geometric shapes are analyzed indepthly in regards to their use in industrial design as well as for their own sake. Los Angeles and New York have been the main hub of activity for this movement.
Minimalism refers to an art period between the 1950s-1970s that involved sculpture and paintings that focused on simplicity in both form and content. Individual expression was thrown out the window and instead artists focused on creating dramatic and intense experiences for their viewers as a result of the simplicity inherent in the objects. However, although Minimalism emerged around this time, it actually can be seen in effect in the 1700s when the, “Altar of Good Fortune” was created out of a cube and stone sphere by Goethe. In addition, other artists in the 1920s also created some artworks following the Minimalist theme. However, it was not until later the Minimalism came full-blown into the art world by artists such as Dan Flavin, Carl Andre, Ellsworth Kelly and Donald Judd. They were upset with Abstract Expressionism that included cold stark canvases, sculptures and installations. Minimalism has several cousin art movements, including Pop Art, Land Art and Conceptual Art. Conceptual Art tries to communicate a theory, Land Art focuses on simple shapes, and Pop Art tries to communicate the message of the impersonal. It was a popular art period and continues to impact artists today in the development of their ideas. Key artists of the movement include Frank Stella and Ellsworth Kelly.
A method of placing all one’s soundtracks on one soundtrack that contains the right mixture of the sounds at the right equalization, filtering and volumes. The end result is what a person wishes his/her sound to be.
A copy of one’s sound mix that is either on DAT or mag stock. One may need to ask for it in addition to the optical track. Obtaining a copy of the mix on tape will give a superior quality level for transfer to video (as opposed to the optical track). It will also provide a more efficient means of mixing if one needs to do some remixing.
In the visual arts, mixed media is artwork created out of two or more visual art mediums. Mixed media art should not be confused with multimedia art, because the former refers to artwork that involves multiple traditional visual art media. The latter refers to art created from a combination of non-visual elements with visual art (such as sound and photography) or combinations with various other arts (like dance and literature).
A mechanism that blends the sounds from various sources along with a volume control for each one. The term may also refer to a person whose job it is to sit at the mixing console and determine how the sounds will be mixed; he/she also handles the audio controls and the faders.
A sound studio; a mixing house is a place designed for mixing the sound for films.
A modeled drawing is a type of drawing that involves the creation and definition of a form using a range of values from light to dark.
(1890-1940) Modernism is an art movement that left tradition behind and instead utilized creative modes of expression that were different from the styles of the times from which it began. Interest grew in experimenting with new kinds of materials such as paint, and letting one’s ideas and feelings flow out into a visual reality. Portraying what was real was not important, as a result, audiences needed to pay extra attention to what they were looking at in order to understand the artist’s message. Key artists of the movement include Paul Cezanne and Edouard Manet.
Moe is a weak tendency of a female character in manga or anime that elicits an affectionate response from viewers. Usually the female characters are innocent or physically young. The characters have an obvious weakness they try hard to fix in themselves. Moe is not related to any sexual content directly.
A type of material having a low molecular weight; it has the ability to chemically react with other materials to create a polymer.
A kind of typeface that involves the horizontal space used by each character being the same. Monospaced type is a typewriter typeface.
Mordant gilding is the process used to lay leaf in an oil painting. Unlike water gilding where water is used, mordant gilding is laid with an oil or varnish sizing. Used only for a matte finish - because it cannot be burnished like water gilded leaf.
A picture created from small colored pieces of materials such as stone, glass or tile.
Motion refers to the organization of the different segments of an image in order to give a sense of action using forms, shapes, textures and lines that shift the eye throughout the artwork.
The Hahnemühle mould made papers are ideal for maintaining brightness and the flow of color. The paper is excellent for watercolor as well as tempers, lavis, gouache, pencil and charcoal drawings. The paper is made on a cylinder mould-made machine. Once it is created it is put through natural felt rollers. The paper has a soft surface texture and may range from 200-600gsm.
The term refers to a standing movioloa. The machine is made by a company called Moviola; the company also creates flat-beds.
A term referring to a painting completed on a wall surface.
A type of ply board created from buffered cellulose or rags of cotton. It is made to create a neutral, stable surface.