A deux crayons is a two-colored drawing created with chalk. The colors used are usually black and red.
A French term referring to openwork patterns/designs used in embroidery, carpentry, lacework and metal artworks.
A la Grecque is a word signifying that something is in a Greek design. The term has been frequently used to refer to art created under the influence of ancient Greek art.
An A-line gown is a form-fitting bodice that flares outward to a full skirt from the waistline. The waist of the gown is seamless.
A type of skirt that fits a woman at her waist and flares outward in a tulip shape (or A-line) at the hem.
A film’s emulsion position. A film is printed emulsion against emulsion, and because of this any print made against the original is called an A-Wind. The original from the camera is known as a B-Wind. These are the only possibilities of the positions because there exist just two sides to a piece of film. One can tell if he/she is looking at a piece of A-Wind because the image will read correctly, as opposed to the B-Wind side that will read backwards. If one is going to use the negative from one’s camera, one will need the B-Wind track.
The negative of a film that is edited. It is cut in relation to a picture and built into rolls A and B to take into consideration invisible splices, immediate changes in regard to the timing of fades and lights, and does not need opticals as it dissolves. Odd numbered shots will be contained in the A roll, and a black leader will be put in place of any missing shots. Even numbered shots will be contained in the B roll, along with black leader where all the shots are on the A roll. The negative passes through the contact printer three times. Each pass will be for either the A roll, the B roll or for the soundtrack. The print is only developed once the elements have been exposed onto print stock.
Bodices that are form fitted and contain a seamless waist. From the waistline the bodies flare outward into a full skirt.
Also known as the American Standards Association – the group that first standardized the ratio of film speed measurement. It refers to a particular kind of film’s sensitivity to light; the number is specific to each film to measure Film Speed which is the same as I.E. and I.S.O.
Aaron's Rod is a type of decorative rounded molding that is interwoven with a motif of tendrils, leaves, a snake and vines.
A slab that the architrave rests upon; it is the member placed at the top of the capital of a column.
Also known as primary structure and minimal art, ABC art stems from a movement in the 1960's in which 3D structures of basic forms and flat colors are made, indicating the planes, lines and forms of geometry. The artistic flair and interpretation usually linked with creativity are put aside to such a degree that the artist is often able to have an artwork created by a method of craftmanship. Tinsmithing and cabinetmaking are examples of this type of art. In essence, the artist is viewed as the originator, overseer and designer of the piece. The primarily impetus of this movement has been the increase of standard design classes in art schools in which simple geometric shapes are analyzed indepthly in regards to their use in industrial design as well as for their own sake. Los Angeles and New York have been the main hub of activity for this movement.
To abduct as it relates to muscles means to draw away from the midline. An abductor is a muscle that abducts.
When a task or program ends unexpectedly, an “abend” occurs. When this happens, the computer program should automatically create an error message to show what the program just did, the file that caused the error or indicate the location of the error in the memory.
An absolute address is an exact memory address. The term may also be called a “real address,” “machine address” or “direct address.”
Absolute alcohol (also known as anhydrous alcohol) is ethyl alcohol taken through a process to eliminate any trace of water. 6% of regular grain alcohol is water. Absolute alcohol can be combined with turpentine, mineral spirits or several other types of solvents.
Absolute coding is a kind of computer programing in which the computer programmer uses absolute addressing, rather than indirect addressing. For instance, an exact memory address may be used to store data rather than use an indirect address by a computer programmer in an assembly language.
Absolute positioning is one way that an element can be positioned with CSS. If an element is positioned absolutely, the box of an element is taken out completely from the document’s flow; it is placed in relation to its containing block. This containing block can be the original containing block or another element. The area the element would have occupied in the document is taken over as if the element were never there. The positioned element creates a block box despite the kind of box it would have created had it been in the regular flow of the documen
A chalk ground that absorbs oil during the oil painting process; the effect is a matted appearance as well as a quickening of the drying process.
Absorption is used in ceramics as a gauge for vitrification; it is the characteristic of fired clay to absorb water.
To abstract something (whether it be a figure, animal or object) is done by either the distortion or the simplification of the item’s form. The form is changed or modified in a way that takes away details and other pieces of information describing the form.
A type of artwork in which parts of forms and shapes are emphasized in interpreting the subject depicted. Abstract art may not necessarily be recognized as something. The term is subjective in its use because all artwork fits somewhere along the spectrum from full representational art to total abstraction; in other words, there are degrees of abstraction in art. In 1910, the artist Vassily Kandinsky is traditionally given the credit for creating the first totally abstract artwork.
Pure dance movements that make up a piece of work containing no plot; often the dance movements suggest a particular subject or mood.
Starting in the 1940s in New York City, Abstract Expressionism is often considered the golden age of American art. Strong emotions are conveyed in this style of art through texture and brushstroke on (often) huge canvases. Painting for painting sake is a dominate force in the movement. Jackson Pollock, Willem de Kooning, and Franz Kline are a few of this movement’s well-known artists. Individual expression and the liberty it brings permeates all of the artwork from this movement also known as “New York School.”
Abstraction is the simplification of a person, object or place into either organic or geometric elements. Basically, it is a way of turning something into a simpler version of itself. Details and other items are stripped away to reveal just the “essence” of the thing being abstracted.
A group of abstract artists that got together during the 1930s in Paris. The exact type of abstract artwork that the artists created varied, and included artists involved in suprematism to constructivism. An annual periodical was written by the group under the name Abstraction-Creation.
A pale yellow-brown Nigerian hardwood. Abura works well for furniture because it stains easily and contains a uniform texture. It is especially useful for creating moldings.
An academician is a person who is an elected representative of an academy who follows academic principles and styles.
Academicism is an adherence to academic methods and ideas. The word can be used to refer to a feature of academic influence in artwork that does not follow traditional methods.
Academie des Beaux-Arts (also known as "the Academy") is the fine arts academy of the Institute of France. The academy is responsible for sponsoring the Ecole Des Beaux-Arts and hosting in Paris the annual official salon.
An academy is an institution created during the Renaissance in order to liberate artists and scholars from the tyranny of guilds, and to raise them to a higher status so people see them as professionals.
Also known as Full Academy Aperture. This is a full frame that is exposed by the camera. It is used in 35mm with an aspect ratio of 1.33. There exists a mask in the projector’s gate that allows the changing of the aspect ratio to 1.85 or 1.66 when the film is projected. This crops the bottom and top of the image. Older films should be projected without the mask because they were never intended to be masked in the first place.
Academy blue is a color pigment that leans towards the green spectrum of the color wheel. It is composed of blue pigment in which the best grades are created into viridian and ultramarine blue.
An academy board is a low-cost panel employed for the use of drawings, sketches and smaller oil paintings. The board is created out of smooth, heavy cardboard that is covered with a ground that provides the necessary surface texture needed for oil paint.
Today canvas board and other kinds of specialty boards are frequently used instead of academy board.
An academy figure is a painting or a drawing completed with the intent of teaching and learning purposes. The drawing or painting is not meant as a final piece of artwork (though they may be used as such by some persons because of their aesthetic appeal).
The term may also be used as a negative comment in reference to artwork of the human form that exudes a sense of lifelessness and/or stiffness.
Also known as S.M.P.T.E. leader. Counting from 8 to 3 and then counting with one frame of two, this is the standard countdown leader. At the end of the count there is a single frame beep on the soundtrack. It is used by the lab in order to align the sound at the start of the film, as well as for the projectionist to turn on the lamp at the right time without missing the start of the film.
Acaroid resin (also known as accroides) is a heavily colored resin that materializes in both yellow and red forms originating from Australian grass trees. The resin (gum accroides) contains film-forming characteristics used for years in the processing of orange, red and yellow varnishes. Acaroid resin continues to be utilized for some industrial uses even though bright dyestuffs have been created to fulfill that particular need in the marketplace.
Xanthorrhoea, black-boy gum and Botany Bay gum are terms used for resin in the past.
An intentional exaggeration of perspective often in a stage setting to permit a shallower than appears actual stage depth.
An accelerated test is a test of materials, such as pigments and paints, by artists. The test is performed in a lab with certain equipment in order to simulate situations that will result in cracking, fading and other breakdowns that paintings are vulnerable to over a period of time. Although accelerated tests do not exactly replicate normal effects aging because of their severity and concentrated forces, the tests are able to point out the resistance/lack of resistance that ingredients and materials may manifest when put under severe forces.
Plants that function in a design for a garden. These plants attract attention with their exciting colors and foliage.
Accroides (also known as acaroid resin) is a heavily colored resin that materializes in both yellow and red forms originating from Australian grass trees. The resin (gum accroides) contains film-forming characteristics used for years in the processing of orange, red and yellow varnishes. Accroides continues to be utilized for some industrial uses even though bright dyestuffs have been created to fulfill that particular need in the marketplace.
Xanthorrhoea, black-boy gum and Botany Bay gum are terms used for resin in the past.
Acetone (also called dimethyl ketone) is a strong, volatile solvent that has the properties necessary to remove paint and lacquer. When used correctly, it is among the less toxic solvents to use in projects. The vapors of acetone are highly flammable and may catch fire despite temperatures below freezing point.
Acetylene is a gaseous hydrocarbon without color. It generates almost 15 times more light than normal illuminating gas. Acetylene easily polymerizes, containing a triple bond. Uses for acetylene include oxyacetylene welding in which a blowpipe/torch mixes oxygen and acetylene.
Acetylene black is one of the many kinds of carbon black. It is close to benzol black.
An acid bath is the tray/container of mordant in which the subject to be etched is contained. The tray in which the mordant is placed must be made up of an acid-resistant material (such as glass) to etch metal plates for printing.
Walling wax may be employed to create a hedge along the edges of a plate, eliminating the need to use an acid bath.
An acid dye is a soluble substance that is primarily used to dye material such as nylon, silk or wool. Acid dyes are relatively cheap, make a color change permanent, and react efficiently.
An acid number is a lab measurement taken in order to find the degree of free fatty acid in a vegetable drying oil. This amount is valuable to know because it assists in the selection of an oil for whatever purpose it is being used for. The milligrams of potassium hydroxide needed to neutralize the free fatty acids contained in a gram of oil is represented by the acid number.
An acid number between 5-10 indicates that an oil is best employed for grinding paints. And an acid number between 1-3 indicate that an oil is best employed in varnishes and other kinds of clear coatings. Often low-numbered oils are used for paint oil colors due to the nonyellowing characteristics and better color stability. These factors are more important than ease of grinding considerations.
Acid resist refers to the resistance employed to stop the destructive action of a mordant over a surface.
A material having a life-expectancy of three years that is used for storing quilts.
Acidification is the method of creating acidity. Usually acidification is the end product of fermentation and plays one of the roles in how fermentation is used to preserve food in a safe manner.
Acids are the glass-formers that mix with fluxes (bases) and stabilizers or refractories (known as neutrals).
Kinds of material - such as plaster and tile - absorb sound waves. Acoustical materials are often placed over interior wall surfaces in order to prevent reverberation of the sound waves.
An acrolith is a draped statue (often a Greek one) that features arms, legs and a head made out of marble and upheld by a trunk of material such as wood.
A pedestal used for an ornament or statue and positioned at the lower corners of a pediment. The term may be used to refer to the ornament alone. The acroter was often used in European case furniture in the Neoclassical style, most notably in the 1700s.
An acroterion is an ornamental finial positioned on a pediment's angles in classical architecture or placed on a stele. The term may also refer to a pediment's angle.
An acrylic canvas is a type of canvas made with polymer primer employed for use with polymer colors. These colors are superior to oil paints in flexibility. Moreover, due to breaking the fat-over-lean rule, painting with oil paint on acrylic canvas may not be recommended by some. Due to atmospheric changes, polymer primer is ideal for painting on acrylic canvas, because it does not expand/contract to the same degree as oil paint and adheres better to an acrylic surface.
Acrylic colors are created by spreading out pigments in a transport made from a polymethyl methacrylate solution mixed in mineral spirits. They are different from polymer colors (containing acrylic and other resins mixed in water) and may be referred to as plastic paints or straight acrylic colors to differentiate between them. Acrylic colors can be easily taken off with turpentine and mineral spirits; moreover, they dry fast and do not yellow over time. Because of these characteristics, acrylic colors are good for inpainting in order to repair damaged or destroyed parts in conservation work.
A type of paint that is water-based and often used to paint interior woodwork. When it dries it gives off a soft sheen because of its silky finish.
A co-polymer or polymer water dispersion of either methacrylic acid, acrylonitrile, or acrylic acid. Emulsions of this kind dry through the processes of water evaporation and film coalescence.
A water-based paint used to seal fiberboard and wood. The paint prepares the surface for paint application. If for example, one is painting with oil paint, a primer is needed to prevent the oil in the paint from seeping into the surface of a canvas or board.
Acrylic resin is created synthetically from the polymerization of acrylic acid esters. There are several types of acrylic resin, the most prominent being polymethyl methacrylate. Other kinds such as methyl methacrylate are employed in the processing of picture varnish, lacquers and acrylic colors and several other products. Another kind of resin, called polymethyl methacrylate, in solid form is a durable, glasslike plastic that does not yellow over time and is often employed in constructions and present-day sculptures.
Acrylic resin paint is a type of synthetic art medium thinned with turpentine and linseed oil. It is oil-compatible.
A solution of acrylic resin in a solvent that is not stable. Paint that contains an acrylic solution binder is similar to oil paints.
A varnish employed as the last surface coating on an dried oil painting. The varnish serves as a preservation and protection mechanism and gives the painting a glossy look. Two important varnishes for painters include damar varnish and clear acrylic (methacrylate) varnish. Damar varnish gives the painting a bright gloss finish. And clear acrylic varnish gives paintings a satiny or mat gloss. Over time paintings need to be cleaned because of dirt/dust/grime from the environment. Ideally a picture varnish is easily soluble in a mild solvent (such as mineral spirits) so dirty varnish can be taken off using careful conservation methods. Damar varnished has replaced mastic varnish (used in the 19th century) because of its resistance to bloom, yellowing over time and features a duller gloss. Damar varnish may be used in thin coats.
A fabric sprayed professionally with acrylic to provide a durable fabric for upholstery.
Ultraviolet light (actinic light) is light that falls past the visible spectrum at the violet section and features wavelengths shorter than the wavelengths of visible light. Light that encompasses ultraviolet radiation is said to be actinic, because it results in photochemical processes such as paint embrittlement, pigment and dye fading, and the creation of images on paper/photo film. Accelerated tests in labs use strong ultraviolet light for their procedures. Unfortunately, the ultravolet light part of direct sunglight has harmful influences on organic paint ingredients. When manufactuers sell paints, they rate the stability of the materials based upon the presumption that the painting will be displayed in a place where the daylight hitting it is diffused.
A style of painting popularized by Jackson Pollack. In action painting, paint may be smeared, dribbled or splashed on a canvas in such a way that the physical act of making the artwork is stressed. This style of painting counterposes the carefully thought-out brushstroke work of other styles of painting. Action painting is sometimes referred to as "gestural abstraction."
In computer programming, an action statement is a command that completes actions such as copying and pasting text.
ActiveX is a branch of Microsoft’s COM and OLE technologies that is incorporated in applications and on the Internet. A browser can perform more tasks with one’s computer than what is possible with just HTML with the use of ActiveX. For example, people using ActiveX can easily check for Windows updates.
Texture refers to the surface quality of something. Texture may be implied or actual. Actual texture is texture that can be felt.
Ada (known previously as DoD-1) is a high-level Pascal-based programming language named after Augusta Ada Byron. It was created by the United States Department of Defense.
Adagio is any type of dance that is paced to slow music. It also refers to a section of the classical pas de deux in ballet. (The pas de deux in classical ballet is made up of an opening adagio; a lady is supported by a man while doing turns and balances. This is then followed by a solo by both individuals; next comes a fast coda that involves a dance by the partners together.)
A British Neoclassical style in furniture and interior decoration in later 1700s started by Robert Adam. In this style, there was a wide use of classical motifs that were painted or with inlaid decoration on rectilinear shapes with graceful proportions. The style was a reaction against the whimsical, somewhat frivolous and asymmetrical Rococo furniture of the 1750s. The style was characterized primarily by its ornamentation. Adam thought architects should follow consistent actions in their buildings, and so he designed both the exterior and interior of his buildings with care. His furniture was often ornamented with gilding of bronze or wood mounts, and he liked to use exotic woods. His primary patrons were wealthy, as they could afford his elegant and often luxurious works. In the same decade, the Adam style was put down as being frivolous and just too much. Yet, the style had a strong influence not only in Europe but also in Russia and the United States.
Additive color mixture is a term applied to combining colors of light - such as combining a red beam of light with a blue beam of light. If beams of yellow, red and blue light are combined, the result is white light.
Addressable resolution is the maximum resolution of a mechanism. It is the absolute maximum pixel number that an imaging mechanism may create or alter an image.
To adduct as it relates to muscles means to draw toward the midline. An adductor is a muscle that adducts.
A kind of substance having the ability to keep material joined through surface attachment. Glue, mastic, and paste are all types of adhesives.
A type of American furniture featuring a rustic flair that was manufactured from around 1898 to the early 1940s. The furniture was popular with the owners of resorts, summer residences and camps of the Adirondack Mountains in upstate New York, and was thus dubbed with its name because of its popularity from that area. The furniture was primarily made in Indiana, and was marketed throughout the United States. Most of the furniture was made up of chairs and sofas, though tables and hat-racks and other items were created along its style as well. Later, in the 1930s and 1940s, its style was influenced by the current styles, and it shifted from its original look and feel.
To change the seasoning of a dish or sauce according to one's taste. To adjust the seasoning, taste the item cooking immediately before serving.
An adjustable curve ruler is a type of ruler that may be bent and set in any curve position. There are different types of adjustable curve rulers available. It is used in general drafting and may be used as a replacement for the French curve or along with it depending on the person's needs.
A draftperson's triangle featuring an adjustable arm capable of being clamped at different angles. It was created to eliminate a draftperson's need of various triangular shapes. A protractor placed between the adjustable arm and the place where it is hinged assesses the angle of the clamped triangle.
A group of computer applications that allow one to make and display PDF files.
A Caribbean spice mixture that varies from cook to cook, although oregano is consistent in all batches of the mixture..
Adsorption is a molecular cohesion. Adhering to another element as if it were glued on, a thin layer of one element remains solidly attached to another element. Liquids, solids and gases can all be adsorbed by surfaces that are solid. When an element is changed physically or chemically into the colloidal state and when the surface is free of debris, the absorption can be increased.
In art, the appearance of warm colors coming forward in the picture plan and the cooler colors staying back is called advancing and retreating color. This idea of warm and cool colors relates to aerial perspective and is used in painting landscapes; the artist may try to give the illusion of depth in the picture plan by employing atmospheric perspective and geometric methods. However, the concept's use is used judiciously by artists because the theory does not always work effectively in every painting. For example, an artist could easily create a warm, rich sunset in the distance while having cool water in the forefront and succeed in having great depth in a painting.
A maroon dried bean that is oval in shape. It is an Asian bean with a sweeter taste and is frequently used in desserts and made into flour.
The term Aegean art refers to a broad class of art from ancient cultures (ca. 2800 B.C to ca. 1400 B.C.) located on the coasts and islands of the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Cultures of prominence in Aegean art include Cycladic, Mycenaean (on coast of mainland Greece), and Minoan (on island of Crete).
A head of a goat or ram; a decorative motif developed from ancient Greek religious iconography. It was implemented in furniture design by Neoclassical style designers during the late 1700s and early 1800s.
Often employed in painting, aerial perspective is the way in which an illusion of space and depth is created through the use of atmospheric techniques. These techniques include making forms in the background region with less contrast and softer edges than those in the forefront of the picture plane. Often in atmospheric perspective there exists a change from warmer hues to cool hues. In general, warmer colors come forward, and cooler colors recede (advancing and retreating color). The atmospheric effect in a picture is due to the degree of moisture suspended in the air. Chinese painters especially employ atmospheric perspective by using clouds or inserting mists in various value tones among the middle areas of the picture plane and introducing fainter tones in the far distance. Aerial perspective is often used together with linear perspective to create a strong sense of spatial depth in the picture.
Also known as a bird’s eye view. This is the viewpoint seen at a high elevation. It involves the vanishing point/s and horizon line being positioned on the upper portion of an image. It is usually used in reference to a landscape or a cityscape. (Aerial view is not the same thing as aerial perspective.)
Aerugo (also known as verdigris) is simply the rust that forms on metals over time - such as the common patina that forms on bronze or copper.
A person's interaction and response to a piece of work, including its visual, literal and expressive qualities.
An English movement from the later part of the 1800s that promoted the philosophy of art for art's sake. The movement sproated as a reaction against the train of thought that art needs to have a purpose for its creation. In essence, the movement was a form of art appreciation. James Whistler, Oscar Wilde and Walter Pater were key advocates of the movment.
Aestheticism is an art philosophy that tout's, "Art for art's sake" (Victor Cousin). Those who adhere to this philosophy hold that the making of art for its own sake has enough merit on its own to merit the act of creating it. This is in opposition to the view that art must have an alternative purpose such as for social or moral values. William Morris (1834 - 1896), the founder of the Arts and Crafts Movement, was a major propagator of this philosophy, as was James Whistler (1834-1903).
The term "aesthetics" comes from the Greek word signifying to perceive; it is the philosophy of art. Criticism of art endeavors to create nonsubjective criteria and rules to explain people's perceptions of style and beauty.
A type of West African hardwood that may range from dark brown to yellow in color. It is used in furniture as either a solid wood or veneer.
Afrocentrism is an ideology; it is a worldview primarily centered in the United States that is a reaction to global predjudiced mindsets about African people and their historical influences in the world.
The ideology can be viewed as an affirmation of Africans of themselves in a Eurocentric-dominated social world by celebrating their cultural heritage as clearly African. The ideology frequently stresses historical African civilizations as progressing in cultural and technological developements will underpining the contributions of Europeans.
Yellowing is the gradual discoloration of a piece of artwork. The process can result from a number of causes including the use of oils/varnishes susceptible to yellowing, a build-up of dirt on the piece that becomes attached to the varnish and/or by the surplus of linseed oil used on the piece. Fortunately, the majority of oil paintings can be issued a new coat of varnish after the old varnish is taken away, thus bringing back the original's colors.
An afterimage is the word used for an optical illusion in which the eye sees an image even after the original image is taken away. Frequently the secondary image will be seen in the complementary color of the original image's color.
Agaima was a Greek word used to refer to any sculpture work. Eventually the term was used to refer to a god statue and less frequently a painted portrait.
Agaimatolite (also referred to as pagodite) is a yellow/green/gray stone employed by the Chinese for carving images and pagodas.
Agate is a semiprecious hard stone of a diversified or striped design. The burnishes in gilding are created by the use of shiny gray agate.
Agateware is clay products that contain swirling marbleized colors. The colors are due to surface slip effects, or they may be caused by marbleized colored clays.
Aggregate is the substances combined with cement to create concrete. Materials such as crushed rock, marble dust or sand can be employed separately or together in the mixture. The term may also refer to substances employed to make rough textures in mortar, plaster and stucco.
The term “aggregate” can refer to a number of things, including data that is made up of smaller segments of information that come together to create a greater whole. The term may also refer to a software program created to gather data from several sources. For instance, a computer user could employ a RSS aggregator that gathers common web pages RSS gives and immediately view all the latest details on the pages without needing to go to every site individually. In computer programming, the term “aggregate” refers to a kind of object composition in which only some of the containing objects will be eradicated when the owning object is eradicated.
Painting techniques that strive to emulate the effect of usage and time on surfaces.
Similar in operation to an airbrush, an air eraser is a tool with the appearance of a large fountain pen that shoots small particles at an area of an artwork to remove mistakes. A compartment containing an abrasive that erases paint or ink is attached to the instrument, as well as a small hose. It appeals to artists because it allows for a delicate approach to erasing mistakes.
A process that is used to process raw clay. The process involves floating the powdered clay in an air-stream in order to remove particles containing a higher density.
Mortar or refractory that is cast and becomes durable and strong even though it is damp. This happens due to a chemical reaction between the clay and water.
In ballet, this is a step completed off the ground. A rond de jambe en l'air is an example of this.
An airbrush is a tool to which a container with fluid paint is fastened. A skinny hose turns into a chamber of carbonic/compressed gas. The tool applies color and tones in seemless gradations. In essence, an airbrush is a version of a spray gun. Commercial artists generally use airbrush technique far more than fine painters for their art.
Pasta is said to be "al dente" when it is firm "to the tooth." It is an Italian phrase that describes the ideal state state of cooked pasta.
Alabama Cream is a kind of American marble excellent for sculpture. Cream Blanc and Madre Cream are other fine-grained, hard, milky kinds available.
A slightly translucent stone with a smooth, white surface. The stone is soft enough to be sawed with a handsaw and is easily carved. It is best used inside because of its susceptibility to scratches. The alabaster mentioned by people in the distant past is actually a different and more sturdier stone variety called onyx marble.
Alabastron is a type of ancient Greek pottery. It features a little oil flask with a curved bottom in the form of a tear drop. Greek athletes used it many years ago to hold and carry the oil they wanted to smear on their bodies.
Albany slip is a slip clay that is produced not far from Albany, New York. The clay was used to create stoneware by early American potters; it gave their pieces a blackish-brown gaze.
Alberene stone is a trade name for a soapstone that comes from the state of Virginia. Its colors can vary from dark black to medium gray.
Munsell created a numerical color notation system that rested upon the five colors of blue, purple, green, yellow and red. The original sphere is made up of ten pure hues around its perimeter. When colors are combined with white they turn into tints, and they move up the vertical scale. When they are combined with mixtures of black, they are positioned further down the scale, and become shades. In addition to moving vertically, the colors move horizontally toward the sphere’s center, and change gradually in purity as they turn into neutral gray tones.
A type of print invented in 1850 by Louis Désiré Blanquart-Evrard. This type of print (also referred to as a albumen silver print) was the first commercially exploitable means of creating a photographic print on a paper base from a negative.
Alcohol colors are bright liquid colors produced from alcohol-soluble aniline dyes in a substance that is water-miscible. The colors are ideal for use with an airbrush and for artwork intended to be copied. Alcohol colors can be applied to a variety of surfaces that are resistant to water paints.
An alegrias is a Spanish Gypsy dance. The dance refers to the action of the bullfight and is frequently danced a woman without the support of a partner.
Alembic is a word used in the past to refer to a still. Physicians during the 3rd century in Alexandria are generally given the honor of having invented distillation. The word originates from the Arabic word alanbig (a still) which is itself derived from the Greek word ambix (a spouted cup).
An alert box (also known as an alert window or alert dialog) is a small window that pops up on the computer screen that gives information to a user. Frequently an alert box contains a cancel button and an OK button.
Alternative words for Egyptian blue.
ALGOL (an abbreviation for ALGOrithmic Language) is a portable language for scientific computations. It broke into the public scene in the late 1950’s as ALGOL 58 and was later developed into ALGOL 68 in the 1960’s.
An algorithm is a mathematical pattern that works out an equation or problem. When the term refers to an image, it explains the patterns that create a compression or color-management program, as well as other RIP applications.
An algorithm is a number of procedures, formulas, or instructions employed to fix a problem. They are employed daily by people around the world to solve a variety of problems. For instance, an algorithm can be employed to analyze a person’s emails to decide whether incoming mail is legitimate or just spam. The first person to create an algorithm for a machine was Ada Lovelace.
Aliasing refers to the visual effect of blocky or jagged pixilation that happens frequently around areas that include vertical or horizontal lines of high contrast.
Alizarin brown is a brown pigment color that contains a reddish, clear hue. It is created as a version of alizarin crimson, containing a more dull appearance. It can result from a failed attempt at making alizarin crimson.
Alizarin carmine was a term used in the past for alizarin crimson. It is now no longer in use.
Alizarin crimson is a brilliant, clear, red lake pigment that features a bluish undertone with a maroon mass value. The pigment is produced from dihydroxy anthraquinone, a coal-tar substance. Alizarin crimson is suitable for permanent painting uses as long as the standard conditions for preserving a piece of artwork are followed. This is despite the face that it does not completely fit in the category of absolute permanence of furnace-made mineral pigments. The pigment shows as a ruby-red when used transparently; and when combined with white pigment, beautiful and brilliant pinks can be created. Moreover, the pigment can be combined safely with other pigments that are listed as safe for its mixture use. The paint will retain its pigmentation when combined with iron-bearing colors so artists do not need to be concerned the pigment will become brown. C. Liebermann and C. Graebe, both German chemists, are credited with discovering it; the pigment is ranked as the first of natural dyestuffs to be synthesized. In time, their version of alizarin was used more in textile dyeing and the producing of the alizarin pigment than the the natural version of it. Also, gradually alizarin crimson was used instead of madder lake, having a stronger tinting capability, and because it does not contain purpurin (an impermanent substance). Artists may combine sepia with alizarin crimson to create Roman sepia. The term alizarin crimson was once known as alizarin carmine.
Alizarin violet is a clear violet pigment created from purpurin, a synthetic. It shares characteristics of alizarin crimson in regards to its pigment properties. However, alizarin violet is not suitable for artist's work that is permanent, because it darkens when exposed to light over an extended period of time.
Alizarin yellow is a clear, yellow pigment that is brownish in color and dull. It features the exact same pigment properties as alizarin crimson but is not suitable for permanent work.
Possessing a pH level higher than 7. The opposite of something being acidic is being alkaline.
Alkaline earths is one segment of high-fire fluxes. The fluxes contain magnesium, barium, calcium and strontium. They work best with matt glaze surfaces.
Alkaline Fluxes are feldspars in high-fire; they are boron fluxes in low-fire.
A type of ceramic glaze whose flux is not lead, but an alkali (like soda ash or borax). Low temperatures are used to fire alkaline glazes and amazing effects can be created. Persian and Egyptian blues are examples of such effects. Unfortunately, there are parameters that need to be aware of when using them because alkalis are prone to caking when suspended in a glaze due to their solubility.
Alkanet is a red natural dyestuff that is taken out of two plants - one from Asia (Lawsonia alba) and one from Europe (Alkanna tinctoria). Unfortunately, it has stopped being used for creating lake pigments or dyeing textiles because alkanet loses its color quickly.
A synthetic resin put in mediums and paint. It functions as a binder that contains the pigment and quickens the drying time.
A number of synthetic resins that contain film-forming characteristics employed for use in varnishes, industrial house paints and enamels. Some artist materials use alkyds. Currently oil-modified alkyd is in use in artist materials. The kinds created with tobacco-seed, soya bean and safflower oils have stronger pigment retention than those created with linseed oil.
A term used for a foundation that includes a girdle and bra pieced together into a one-piece garment.
A style of painting in which the entire surface of the piece is worked on in a more or less uniform way, and the normal way of treating composition (with the picture having a center, top or bottom) is not considered. The term was originally used in response to Jackson Pollock's drip paintings. Later the term was used to refer to other pieces that refrain from the usual compositional approaches. In this way, the Impressionists "liberated" artists from a decided center of interest - and not necessarily to one of no composition - but rather to multiple or all-over points in the picture plane.
All-over space refers to a kind of space that exists in modern painting; it involves the distribution of forms filling a 2D surface versus creation of a center of interest used in traditional compositions. In this type of space, the forms are displayed as filling in the spatial depth, as well as displaying similar degrees of significance within the composition. This is in opposition to traditional composition in which there is a center of interest that is considered the most important part of the composition. The forerunner of all-over space was Jackson Pollack. He used all-over space in his drip paintings during the 1940’s and 1950’s.
All-purpose ground (multipurpose ground) is a prepared panel/canvas created for use with several types of media, including watercolor, polymer and oil. Every painting medium contains its own particular preference for its best use; therefore multipurpose panels and canvases cannot compare to the superiority of a panel/canvas prepared for a particular purpose. However, traditional gesso panel can be modified for use with every artist's type of paint.
An Italian term meaning “at the first.” It is a painting method that involves creating a painting in one sitting without the use of any under painting.
An allegro is a dance that contains either a moderate or fast tempo. It is often followed by the adagio, and is typified by jumps or fast turns.
An alley refers to the spaces that reside on a page between the columns. (An alley is not the same thing as the gutter – this is the joining of the interior margins of pages that face one another.)
Cracks that form on the surface of layers of paint; they take on the appearance of alligator hide.
In ballet, an allonage refers to an elongated line, especially the horizontal line of an arabesque which involves a dancer placing one of his/her arms toward the front and the other arm towards the back.
A design that is repeated and fills an area entirely. Textiles and wallpapers are examples of items that contain allover designs.
A style of painting in which the entire surface of the piece is worked on in a more or less uniform way, and the normal way of treating composition (with the picture having a center, top or bottom) is not considered. The term was originally used in response to Jackson Pollock's drip paintings. Later the term was used to refer to other pieces that refrain from the usual compositional approaches.
An alpha channel is an image-editor channel; individuals use it to hold a mask, partial picture element or color. It determines the transparency of every color in an image. It originated in 1997 by Alvy Ray Smith and Ed Catmull at N.Y.I.T. The alpha channel would be the 4th channel in a 3-color image.
An altarpiece may refer to a number of carved or painted panels, a structure featuring a carving or painting, a single painting, or an ornate screen that is positioned behind, on top of, or on an altar. A traditional Renaissance altarpiece features a number of religious paintings on panels that are hinged together (such as a triptych), and contain frames that may be decorated with jewels, gilded or carved. The Spanish word "retablo," the French word "retable," the English word "reredos," and the Italian word "ancona" are all words used as synonyms for the word "altarpiece."
Alternating rhythm is one of the five types of visual rhythm. It occurs when positive and negative shapes change design at regular intervals. An example of alternating rhythm can be found on chessboards with their black and white squares.
An Italian word for a sculptural relief; shapes stick out from the backdrop of the relief sometimes more than half of the depth's form.
Alumina hydrate is aluminum hydroxide; it is made into a light, white powder and is employed as a inactive pigment. It is favored as a base for lake pigments, losing its color almost totally when mixed with oil. Alumina hydrate gives a wonderful brush-quality to oil paints and helps to keep pigment distribution consistent .
Aluminum leaf is a type of leaf employed by artists/craftpersons to create a silvery effect in gilding. Palladium and silver leaf are preferred leafs over aluminum leaf, because the later gives off a mated, dull look. Art pieces are not recommended to contain aluminum leaf, because its already rough, dull apperance increases over time.
Aluminum paint is a type of lacquer or industrial paint that contains aluminum powder employed for use as a decorative effect; it gives off a silvery, mated appearance. Though resistant to tarnishing, aluminum paint does not exude the same luster that silver leaf lends to a surface. It is useful in industrial and commerical products/projects, but is not appropriate for gilding because of its texture and leaden characteristics.
A type of metallic pigment combined with bronzing liquid to create silver paint. Because of the texture and leaden characteristics of aluminum paint, it is not appropriate for gilding. However, it has many uses for industrial and commericial products/projects.
Aluminum silicate is a general category of supplies that are made up of mostly silica and alumina. It contains raw materials (like feldspar), glaze and fired clay.
Aluminum stearate is employed by makers of oil paints to be used as a stabilizer to stop oil and pigment division in paint tubes. It is an inactive pigment.
(1898 - 1976) Aalto was a painter, sculptor, designer and Finnish architect. His wife, Aino Marsio, was his main collaborator until she died in 1949. One of their major collaborations was the Artek furniture whose techniques of jointing, bending and novel graceful lines eventually gained popularity and had a big impact on future furniture design. Between the years of 1927 and 1954 Aalto took part in experiments to create free abstract sculptures and abstract reliefs made out of laminated wood which later served as inspiration for his architecture work. He is known in particular for his memorial for the Battle of Suomussalmi. Aalto is also known for his influence in promoting modern art.
Amaranth (also known as purpleheart) is a type of purplish hardwood that comes from trees growing in the Guianas. It contains a tight texture and pleasing, varied grain. The term amaranth may also refer to the purple dyestuff created from the wood; however, paint pigments created from it are not stable in the sunlight.
Amarna art is a type of artwork from Egypt that occured from 1379 - 1361 BC during the time of Pharoah Akenaten's rule. From the city of Amarna, the style of artwork included fluid lines and a certain naturalism; traditionally it is thought that Amarna art was impacted by the pharaoh's preference towards monotheism after his lapse from polytheism.
An amasette is a French word for a horn spatula; it was used in the past to scrape together the color from grinding paint. A slice or stainless steel spatula would be a similar tool used today.
A term used for women’s riding clothes. The word “Amazone” was popularized in the 1800s; the word is derived from the female warriors of Greek mythology called the Amazons.
Amber is a type of fossil resin taken from the land; the coast of the Baltic Sea in East Prussia contains many deposits of amber. It is often used in ornaments and bead-making. Because amber is such a hardy resin, it is highly desirable as a varnish resin despite the fact it is among the least soluble. Amber varnishes actually are made up of only a small amount of amber, because even when combined with various resins and oils not much amber can be placed in solutuions at hot temperatures.
A photograph that causes a positive image on a sheet of glass utilizing the wet plate collodion method. It was first used in the 1850s in the United States. The method was invented by Frederick Scott Archer but ambrotypes utilized the plate image not as a negative, but as a positive. James Ambrose may be credited with coining the term "ambrotype"; he took out many patents in regards to the process.
ANSI is the United States member of the International Standards Organization; it is in charge of overseeing industry standards.
American scene painting is a particular style of representational, naturlistic art created in the United States from the 1920s - 1950s. In this movement artists shy away from avant garde and abstraction. Many American artists turned away from current art trends after WWI and decided to follow academic realism to portray rural and urban scenes in the USA. A lot of this style portrays a feeling of romanticism and nationalism in the daily life of Americans. Paintings of quaint towns, country landscapes and American city life were created by some artists to retreat from industrialization and by others to give a voice to their own political agendas and/or causes. William S. Schwartz, Alexandre Hogue, Edward Hopper, Charles Burchfield, Thomas Benton and John Rogers Cox are all examples of artists in the movement. And Thomas Benton studied with or taught several of the artists in the movement at the Kansas City Art Institute. Some artworks under the movement focused on depicting the quaint/small towns in the USA and are frequently called American Regionalism. Those artworks under the movement that focused on depicting social/political themes are called Social Realism. Isaac Soyer and Jack Levine are representatives of Social realists.
ASTM is an organization that tests and makes standards for industrial materials. CS 98-62 standards that were made by the National Bureau of Standards have now been taken over by ASTM standard specifications.
American vermilion is a lake pigment created on a base of chrome red, red lead or orange mineral that contains a bright, man-made dyestuff. The paint (which may be referred to as vermilionette or imitation vermilion) is not appropriate for artist's work that intends to be permanent.
Amherst standstone is a light sandstone that is obtainable in various colors including gray and light, tan brown. It originates from the state of Ohio in Lorrain County.
Amino acids are the blocks that make up proteins. The amino acids gather together to form chains that in turn create a wide variety of proteins. Proteins are made up of twenty different types of amino acids. Of the twenty types, nine are termed “essential” for people since they are not obtained through any other means other than through food. Humans are unable to manufacture essential amino acids in their bodies.
Ammonia is an alkaline gas made up of hydrogen and nitrogen that is employed in different degrees of concentration as an emulsifier and disinfectant/cleaner. Ammonia is favored in recipes requiring an alkali for permament paintings; this is because ammonia is changeable and as a result, will not leave behind any by-products.
Amorphous is a term referring to a solid, homogeneous substance that contains no set melting point or crystalline pattern. Amorphous substances will crack/separate with conchoidal fracture. Examples of amorphous substances include lumps of resin or glass.
An amphora is a big, ancient Greek ceramic jar featuring two handles employed for storing things such as grain and wine. There were different kinds of amphoras made, one of which was placed in a rack instead of remaining upright on its own, and another in which featured a kneck that was offset. Some contained artwork on them. Many numbers of amphoras were used for transportation purposes of goods.
This is an image screening technique; it uses halftones that are represented by dots that are different sizes, but they are positioned at regular intervals on a grid system.
AMVs stands for anime music videos. AMVs are usually non-professional combinations of anime clips with songs that do not relate to one another. AMVs may be done in fun and lightheartedness, and others are quite serious. In either case, they are an enjoyed feature at conventions revolving around anime.
Also known as cellar kiln. Anagama originated from the bank-kiln. It is a traditional Japanese kiln that contains a long sloping tubular ware chamger along with an extreme below that works as a firebox. It creates residual-ash effects as well as a large amount of flame-flashing.
A still or moving picture comprised of two similar but different perspectives of the same subject matter in superimposed contrasting colors; the result, when seen through two similarly colored filters. The anaglyph may also refer to a section of decoration or sculpture made into relief such as a boss/cameo. It is different than a diaglyph which features depressed carvings/engravings.
An analog involves systems that continually involve different signals or data (not discreet levels or steps of digital data).
A way of making a wide screen image with standard film. It uses a particular type of lens on a projector and camera that compresses an image’s width exposed on a film that is then expanded once projected.
An anamorphosis is a drawing/painting that cannot be recognized unless seen from a certain distance, angle or with a lens/mirror that corrects itself. During the 1700s anamorphosis was in particular celebrated as an artistic stunt. The distortion was often made by squaring the original piece and then making identical each of the squares into the same area of the distorted grid. Another method was that the original piece could be created with distortion by using a distorting tool or by perforating lines of the piece, sending light through the original piece onto a curved surface area. After this, the points of light would be connected with drawn lines. An artist might chose to use both regular perspective an anamorphosis to create unusual effects - such as drawing a normal landscape and then using an uncommon angle to hide a face or figure in the composition.
Anastatic printing is a relief printing method that leaves behind the sections/marks/lines that need to be inked - in other words, everything except the printing section of the plate is etched. This process is different from etching (an intaglio printing method). Zinc etching is among the best known anastic printing methods. Asphalt varnish is used to paint the design on a zinc plate. Then the plate is held in a mordant bath of dilute nitric acid after the varnish dries. This causes the areas that are not for printing to be bitten away. The artist William Blake (1757 - 1827) created all kinds of picture illustrations and texts using anastatic printing.
Ancien is the argot or cant for a senior student (or monitor) in an atelier or art studio class. Argot refers to a secret language that a group uses so other people cannot understand their conversations.
The term "Ancients" is the title applied to a group of Britich Romantic artists in the early 1800s who were attracted to medieval things. They were also called the Shoreham Ancients and the Extollagers. Their work was primarily pastoral and they were greatly inspired by the writings of William Blake (1757 - 1827). Edward Calvert, George Richmond and Samuel Palmer were representatives of the group. They assembled in Blake's residence and at the residence of Samuel Palmer. The subject matter portrayed in the group included things taken from Scripture and their ideas of pastoral innocence.
Paft of the forearm, the anconeus includes the lateral epicondyle of humerus. It is located at the lecranon and upper portion of ulna. The anconeus is responsible for straightening the arm at the elbow.
The pattern that tesserae are positioned which creates the mosaic composition.
A sphinx is a carved picture of a lion laying down that contains an animal or human head positioned in a fixed gaze. It was a favored theme in art from Egypt. The term "androsphinx" refers to the sphinx that features a human-head; it was the most numerous of the sphinx made in ancient Egyptian art.
Anemia is the condition in which one possesses less than normal hemoglobin or red blood cells in the blood. This causes a reduction of oxygen circulating in the body and can cause a number of symptoms, especially fatigue and lethargy. Anemia may be a result of insufficient B12, folate, and iron in the body. It can also be caused by menstrual bleeding, a bone marrow disease, a break in red blood cells, and the abnormal formation of red blood cells.
Liners and stripers are brushes designed to create hard edges, lines that are straight and for other uses as desired by artists. The liners differ according to the use of the person requiring the brush. Angular liners feature hairs that line up in a diagonal line, and some of these brushes are handled on their corners and edges (versus using their flat side). Examples of different liners include brick liners, dagger liners, Dresden liners and sword liners.
Angular perspective is a type of linear perspective. All categories of linear perspective include a horizon line and a stationary point (the position of the observer). In two-point perspective, there exist two points from which an object’s lines radiate from; the sides of the object vanish to one of two vanishing points on the horizon line. An object’s vertical lines do not relate to the perspective rules of the horizontal lines. By changing the vanishing points of the object, one can make increase or decrease the size of the object. Angular perspective is the same as two-point perspective.
Anhydrous alcohol (also known as absolute alcohol) is ethyl alcohol taken through a process to eliminate any trace of water. 6% of regular grain alcohol is water. Anhydrous alcohol can be combined with turpentine, mineral spirits or several other solvents.
A drawing created as the foundation for a background painting along with the action and placement of the animated characters.
An animation group of cels or single animation cel that is used along with a production background. A cel setup could involve one or multiple levels of cels layed on an animation background.
Pronounced a-nee-may, anime refers to any of the various forms of animation in the country of Japan. Outside the country, anime relates strictly to Japanese animation. Sometimes anime is called “Japanimation.”
Pronounced a-nee-may, anime refers to any of the various forms of animation in the country of Japan. Outside the country, anime relates strictly to Japanese animation. Sometimes anime is called “Japanimation.”
An ankh is a symbol representing life used frequently in art from Egypt and also in some Assyrian art. Other words for the symbol include Egyptian cross, ansata and ansate. It looks like a cross with a loop at the top. The origin of the symbol is yet a mystery to Egyptologists.
Annatto is a yellow dyestuff that is both oil and alcohol soluble; it is created from the annatto tree. It has been a popular substance for adding color to cheeses and butter. Annatto should not be used for items requiring permanent coloring.
Annealing is the method of allowing a heated object to cool down gradually to permit internal shrinkage stress to even out without harming the object.
Anodizing is an electrolytic method that involves coating metal with a decorative or protective surface coating. Placing a uniform layer on aluminum of aluminum oxide through anodizing safeguards the aluminum from corrosion over time and aides in its capacity to firmly grasp coating materials and paints.
The very first print created by the A&B Rolls made with the optical track. Sound and picture are brought together for the first time on the same piece of print stock. If one is not satisfied with the timing of the print’s results, it is called the “First Answer Print.” And then the print can be done again to correct any mistakes. The second print would be called the, “Second Answer Print,” and the third the, “Third Answer Print” ….etc
The term anterior is a descriptive word regarding the locations of the body. Anterior refers to the body’s front-side.
An anthemion is a collection of decorations made up of flower shapes and simple leaf forms. The forms were used in ancient Greece and survived until the present day as an established theme. There are about 3-4 main kinds of anthemia, and they can be employed individually or grouped together.
A clear man-made organic pigment that contains wonderful lightfast characteristics. The color may become soluble in powerful solvents that are organic.
Paints that are designed specifically for things that reside beneath the water - such as boat docks or hulls, in order to stop the growth of organisms from covering their surfaces.
Anti-alias is the technique of smoothing and taking out any aliasing effects through the use of electronic filtering. It also involves other methods such the blending of crisp edges.
Something that is antibiotic is antibacterial – it fights bacteria. It is a substance that retards or destroys the proliferation of both good and bad bacteria.
Antic work is artwork that is absurd, ridiculous and ugly; it is often portrayed with plant, animal or human forms.
Reddish/orangish paint pigments created with antimony trisulfide. They were originally discovered and patented by Murock from Scotland. In oil paint form they are bright, but in their dry state they are boring and dull to look at. They are now obsolete, being replaced by cadmium reds in the 1920s. Unfortunately, they had the nature of blackening when mixed with flake white and other lead pigments.
Antimony sulfide is a pigment created by crushing gray-black stibnite or through chemical processes. The powder is employed only as a cover-up paint.
An antioxidant is a substance that mitigates or stops the harm caused by free radicals towards healthy cells.
Something is said to be an antique when it was created many years ago. An antique may refer to a work of art or just an old object. Often antiques are valuable because of their nostalgic value, limited availability or irreplaceable parts. According to the USA, home furnishings are considered antiques if they are at least 100 years old.
An antoxidant is a substance that when combined with oil paint will deter or stop surface oxidation. A retardant is an antoxidant fluid.
Antwerp blue is a less intense variation of Prussian blue. It holds about 75% of non-active pigment and is not suitable as a permanent paint for artwork.
The Antwerp School is a term coined for artists during the 1500s in the city of Antwerp, which was the hub of economic activity of the Low Countries. It was also used for the artists during the 1600s when it became the powerhouse of Flemish Barque. The city of Antwerp replaced Bruges as the powerhouse of commerce of the Low Countries. Craftpersons and artists banded together to form the Guild of Saint Luke, which provided necessary skills/knowledge of the arts/crafts and ensured the products produced were well made. The Antwerp Mannerists were the 1st school of artists coming out of Antwerp. These artists were active from 1500 - 1520 in creating Gothic artwork.
During the 1600s Antwerp revived again as an artistic center. Jacob Jordaens , Anthony van Dyck and Peter Paul Rubens were influential in propping up Antwerp as a hub of Flemish Baroque. A large body of book illustrations and old master prints were made during this time. However, over time due to the economy, several artist persons moved away, and towards the late 1600s the city could no longer boast of being a main art center.
An anvil is a block on which metal is formed. Forging or hammering the metal by hand are the methods used. In the later method, the metal may be placed in a fire until it is red and bendable. Then, it is taken out and hammered on the anvil to the desired shape. The anvil itself may be created out of steel-faced iron.
AOP (an abbreviation for Aspect-Oriented Programming) was created by Xerox PARC. It aids a computer programer in determining how a program will be compiled. The term may also refer to Auto OP - a chanserv IRC chat feature that allows a user immediate access to OP in a chat channel they can use once they are registered with nickserv.
API (an abbreviation for application program interface) is a number of tools, routines and protocols for creating software applications. APIs permit programmers to access other company’s services and programs with greater ease. For example, Twitter permits website developers/programmers to more easily take part in their services through the use of APIs.
Apoptosis is cell death as programmed by the body depending upon one’s age and current state of cell health. Inflammatory responses by the body are not usually associated with cells destroyed by apoptosis. Apoptosis is fought against by cancer cells.
A handy wooden box used to raise equipment or for a camera operator to stand on if need be. There are different sizes of apple boxes, including half apples and quarter apples. Sometimes they are used as seats.
A applet is a small program that can complete a task that a bigger program is not capable of doing. An example of an applet is Sun Java applet - it is a file located on the Internet that administers more functions not possible through the use of HTML.
Applied arts is a term used for the employment of beauty and design to useful objects. Though it can be difficult to separate the two, fine arts are usually placed in the category of art that awakens the mind and/or appeals to one's academic, intellectual response. Fine art can occur in any type of art form, such as music or sculpture. It often requires years of intense study by an artist to create a piece of excellent fine art. Applied arts, on the other hand, apply imaginative ideas to objects that serve everyday needs. Types of art that are regarded as applied arts include fashion design, decorative design and industrial design. As it relates to academics, some parts of education are regarded as applied science and others as applied arts, though both may contain overlapping methods of areas of pedagogy.
. As it relates to academics, some parts of education are regarded as applied science and others as applied arts, though both may contain overlapping methods and areas of st
Applique involves adding low-relief clay forms to slurried, scored leather-hard surfaces for embellishment.
Apricot gum is a transparent gum that comes from apricot trees. Fruit gums, such as apricot gum, have been mentioned in ancient formulas for use in varnishes and paint additives. Gums can be put into water for awhile if they dry; this method causes the gums to expand and transform into a gelled material. Cherry gum is the most frequently mentioned gum used in formulas for artists in the past.
Aqua fortis is a Latin word used to refer to nitric acid. Its dilution is the main mordant etchers use in their craft.
An aquafortist is a term used for a person who etches, the same way the term painter is used for a person who paints.
Aquarelle is a particular style of painting in which the artist uses transparent layers of watercolor to create their artwork. The term may also mean a piece of artwork created in a certain way.
Aquatint is a variation of etching; it is an intaglio technique used in printmaking. In this kind of printmaking, a person creates impressions on a matrix (a zinc/copper plate in regards to aquatint) containing ink. After this step, the plate and a paper sheet are inserted in a printing press. The end product is paper coated with an ink layer; this step can be repeated as desired by the artist. Acid is used in aquatint in order to create the impressions on the metal plate. This is different than the engraving method in which a person uses a needle to create the impressions. Aquatint employs rosin in order to make the value gradations. Rosin holds onto the plates surface by heat and resists acid. An image is formed one part at a time by the artist maneuvering the degree of acid exposure over the piece's areas to control the tonal variations. The famous artist Goya (1746 - 1828) created images completed in aquatint with drypoint and/or etched lines. At present, the method of aquatint is favored for use by graphic artists, and is particularly favored when it comes to completing prints in color.
Aqueous paint refers to all paint that may be diluted with water, as opposed to paint that requires volatile solvents to be dissolved. Examples of aqueous paints include tempera, polymer colors, gouache and watercolor.
An arabesque is a decorative form of art that displays rhythmic linear patterns of interwoven lines that may include animal, flower, leaf or fruit placed within the total art design. Often arabesques are graceful and curvy. In regards to the West today, arabesques are primarily present in the decorative arts. However, they have a greater presence in Islamic art because that type of art does not usually include figures in the designs. The term arabesque may also refer to a dance position. It involves a dancer standing on a single leg that is either bent or straight; the other leg is positioned at 90 degrees to the back.
A section of the lowercase letter that is created by a curve springing from the stem of a letter. H and m are examples of letters containing an arch.
Arch bricks are bricks that contain side faces that are angled and tapered over their widths; when put down together the bricks create a curved arch. A normal arch brick contains a 4.5 inch thick arch.
A terms describing the longevity of a piece of material. A material that is archival lasts longer/maintains its state better than items that are not archival. PH neutral materials and alkaline-buffered materials are examples of archival quality items.
An Argentinean tango is a dance that began in the West Indies. Only the lowest classes danced the tango; gradually, the dance became more and more popular. Nowadays it is a common sight to see couples dancing the tango in Argentina. Because of its sensuality, at one point the tango was forbidden by the pope!
Also known as an “arg,” an argument in computer programming or when referencing the command line, is a value that is placed into a routine, command or function.
Arithmetic operators refer to the symbols that act as the arithmetic math operations. The addition operator is +, the subtraction operator is -, the multiplication operator is *, and the division operator is /.
A style of art in the late 1800s that stressed the ornamentation of interiors. Objects were ornamented, surface coverings will decked with fringes and furniture was decorative. The movement influenced predominately the United States and England. During this time in each country, the concepts of mass production were in full tilt, and so using different kinds of styles in the same product was promoted. A British man named William Morris put down the opulence of these developments and instead promoted using quality craftsmanship and design. It was this reaction to the industrial developments of reproduction that brought about the movement. Artists tried to bring to people’s attention the important of the individual creativity and worth of each human – as opposed to being a nobody in the growing world of development and progress in technology and industry. The arts most influenced by the movement include furniture design, architecture and the decorative arts. Examples of influential artists of the style include John Ruskin, Walter Crane, Frank Wright and Dirk Van Erp.
Coined by Jean Dubuffet, "art brut" is a term for art created by people on the out-skirts of the established art world such as psychiatric patients and people living on the edge of society. Dubuffet was of the opinion that this type of art - since it derived from people who were not inhibited but educational training or social constraints - was respectable.
A period of art that is included a combination of modern decorative art styles. Most of the styles came from the 1920s and 1930s that involved different kinds of avant-garde painting styles from the late 1900s. Characteristics from Russian Constructivism, Italian Futurism and Cubism are all present in this movement’s artwork; the style uses simplification, distortion, abstraction and geometric shapes heavily. Bright intense colors are used to hail the growing use of technology and the development of speed and product industries.
The term also relates to interior design and furniture between the 1920s and 1930s; pale colors were utilized heavily, especially ivory and silvery gray.
An art grant is a sum of money offered to an individual or organization to fund a particular purpose - such as education, research, a work of art, or living support so the person/persons are free to concentrate on a body of work.
Fermentation is a kind of anaerobic process that releases energy; it breaks down carbohydrates and other substances into simpler substances. Many microorganisms such as bacteria, yeasts and some molds access their energy through the process of fermentation. The end result of each fermentation process is based upon which type of microorganism is active and the actual item being fermented. Antibiotics are made from mold and bacterial fermentation for example. Beer is made from the fermentation of yeast in grain, while wine is the result of yeast fermentation from fruit juice. There are various methods of fermentation, and the process is often associated with products that are beneficial for the intestinal tract, such as kefir, yogurt and fermented pickles. The art of fermentation has been growing in popularity in recent years as scientists and laypeople alike learn about the health benefits of consuming fermented foods to aid digestion, boost the immune system and prevent disease.
An artist agent is a person hired to help an artist gain exposure for his artwork and to generate sales. Agents receive up to 50% of an artist’s profits. Therefore, it is important that the agent representing one’s artwork is chosen carefully and keeps one’s best interests in mind. An agent should specialize in the type of artwork an artist creates. It is also important that an agent has good referrals and gives one access to previous or current clients to learn how good the agent performs his/her job. An artist and an artist agent sign a fair agent agreement to work together professionally.
An artist's proof is the impression of a print created in the print-making process to understand the progress of the plate an artist is working on. An artist proof can also be a test print that shows the colors that make up the final print. Frequently an artist will make a proof in order to view how the image is going to print. The term is now often used to refer to the impression of the finished work that is the same as the numbered copies. The artist's proofs are not given place in the limited edition count. Traditionally, an artist is not suppose to sell his/her proofs (which may number over twenty) immediately after printing them.
The prints are often signed “AP” or “Artist Proof” with the standard edition size not to go beyond 10% of the regular limited edition size. For example, an edition of 200 would have 20 artist proofs. Serious art collectors often want artist proofs because there are fewer of them. And sometimes an artist proof is remarqued – which makes the print even more desirable. However, it is important to note that artists’ proofs are not necessarily better in quality than the regular print edition due to modern printing techniques.
The key to perceiving things and drawing them is to have a mental shift in the brain - from the left-mode of thinking to the right-mode of thinking. In each mode, a person perceives things differently.
For example, while in the left-mode of the brain, if a person saw a fire, he/she would run to get some water. But a person in the right-mode of the brain would think, “Look at all the pretty colors of yellow, orange and red!”
This is why artists may mention that they notice a different state of mental awareness as they draw - time seems to fly out the window and does not exist! Words are no longer important, and a state of relaxation combined with an alert mind takes over. Drawing, playing music, painting, cooking....all of these things can bring one into this state of awareness. It is a pleasurable experience.
Therefore, the artist’s way of seeing begins with shifting into using the right side of the brain in order to truly SEE what is in front of him/her. By shifting to the drawing mode, people can begin to draw their perceptions, rather than draw preconceived notions of what is there.
In calligraphy, an ascender is the section of a letter that extends over the waistline.
In calligraphy, an ascender line is the guideline that displays how high an ascending letter is.
Ash slagging is the placement of a lot of deposition of fly-ash on wares’ surfaces, furniture surfaces and the inside of a kiln’s surface within a wooden kiln.
The ratio of the frame. Usually aspect ratios are shortened to remove the “- to 1” because they assume the ratio will always be in relation to 1. So a ratio of “1.85 to 1” is just known as “1.85.” A squarish image is taken by cameras in 16mm and 35mm with an aspect ratio of 1.33. In 35mm, this ratio is called the Academy Aperture. Frequently in 35mm the image is shot with this ratio and then masked in the projector, which will then create a wider image. In the USA, this is 1.85, and in Europe this is 1.66.
Aspergillus is a genus of mold often utilized in the fermenting of legumes and grains in Asia.
ASPI is an abbreviation for Advanced SCSI Programming Interface - an interface specification. It sends commands to a SCSI host adapter created by Adaptec. It is now the unofficial standard for computer programmers who desire to make drivers that operate with all ASPI-compatible SCSI adapters.
Assemblage is a kind of modern sculpture. It involves the joining of various forms or objects. Famous assemblages include those completed by Robert Rauschenberg in the 1950’s and 1960’s. Often objects are joined and assembled for both expressive as well as visual characteristics.
Assemblage refers to adhering three-dimensional objects to an image's surface, adding actual texture to the image. Assemblage should not be confused with collage.
An assemble in dance refers to a jump completed from one to both feet; frequently the dancer lands in fifth position.
Assisted technology is a type of technology that involves jiggering, ram-pressing and slip-casting; the technology is high-production studio technology that originated from the industry and was then adapted depending upon a particular need.
Short for “the American Society for Testing and Materials.” It sets a certain standard by which certain paint qualities are tested. Many manufacturers use it as a standard for quality purposes.
Atmospheric refers to a certain quality of 2D work that involves the property of the atmosphere. Something that is “atmospheric” contains within a quality of airiness. This quality is frequently used in contemporary images. Atmospheric also refers to the use of fading and using paler colors and values in order to give a sense of distance within a composition.
Atmospheric burner is a gas burner that uses the natural process of gas escaping from the orifice to entrain primary-air; the burner removes the need for a mechanical blower.
Atomic vibration is the continual movement of atoms and molecules that are contained within everything in the universe. Atomic vibration occurs when heat accelerates the atoms and causes them to break atomic bonds. This in turn causes a solid to turn into a gas or liquid.
An attitude refers to a dance position that involves a single leg raised either to the front with the knee bent or to the back; usually a dancer’s arm is raised as well.
The term originally referred to a small bag used to carry alms by people during the Middle Ages. Later, women used the bag as both a practical and fashionable accessory during the 1700s. This bag was a catalyst of the reticule and eventually the handbag.
The concept that the viewer's comprehension of the underlying meaning of a piece of artwork should not be influenced by the author's stated intentions, social background or biography.
A condition that involves the body’s immune system fighting against one’s own tissues. There is wide speculation in what causes the body to fight against itself. One theory is that the body cannot break down proteins properly; therefore, when encountering these partly digested proteins in the blood stream due to intestinal permeability, the body attacks itself. Because fermentation breaks down protein prior to human digestion, people with autoimmune conditions are often able to eat fermented food items that normally would illicit an autoimmune response – such as homemade fermented yogurt and homemade organic whole wheat sourdough bread.
The term refers to dubbing that is completed as a substitution for or as an addition for location sound. Sometimes filmers prefer to use the term perhaps because it sheds light away from the fact that any dubbing was down when the short-hand of it is used in the credits – A.D.R.
Refers to a table layout method of using CSS that resembles a long-used model by authors to create HTML tables. This method can be used in the following matter: 1) The minimum and maximum cell width for each cell in a column is calculated. 2) The minimum width needed to view the content is determined. If a cells contains a width value bigger than the minimum possible width, a value of width is set for the minimum cell width. And the minimum cell width is set to the minimum content width if the cell’s width value is auto. 3) Calculate the width needed to show the content minus any line-breaking for the maximum width. The maximum cell width is this value. 4) Determine both the minimum and maximum column width. 5) The total of the minimum column widths needs to be equal to the minimum cell width for the spanning cell. Moreover, the total of the maximum column widths needs to be equal to the spanning cell’s maximum width. Any differences in the column widths should be divided equally amid the spanned columns. Also, one needs to take into consideration that when a column width has a % value for the width, the % is determined as it relates to the table’s width - though the width may not be given. This percentage value needs to be used in the next part of the algorithm. A user agent can determine the width of a width once he/she has figured out how narrow or wide each column may be. This process is figured out in the following manner: A) The computed table width is contrasted to the total of all the column widths, as well as any cell-spacing or borders. The bigger of the two values is chosen as the width of the table. All the widths of the columns are expanded by an equal measurement so they take up the width of the table if the table’s computed width is bigger than the total of the column’s cell-spacing, borders and widths. However, if the computed width of the table is auto, then a table’s width is found by totaling the cell-spacing, borders and column widths. So, like traditional HTML tables, this signifies that a table will remain as wide as possible to have its content viewed - but no more as necessary. After these steps are completed, a user agent can commence with laying out the table.
Automatic writing is a technique developed in the 20th century by the Surrealist and Dada artists to use as a tool to enter into their subconscious minds to write poetry. The artists would endeavor to access their subconscious thoughts in order to write more open, uninhibited poetry.
A French description of a dish to which has been added a number of fresh herbs, such as parsley, chives and tarragon.
Aventurine is a type of glaze that involves iridescent tiny metallic pieces that are caused from iron crystals residing underneath the surface.
A fruit that originated from South and Central America. A ripe avocado is soft to the touch; it is a popular addition to many salads and appetizers.
An axis is a line that runs straight through something in order to show the direction and movement of something. The line is purely conceptual – it is often used as a helpful tool for artists.
A phrase said to the person holding the slate to signify he/she should strike the sticks together.