Sound speed is the standard speed for shooting and projecting. The speed is twenty-four frames per second.
A rule stating that a camera should be placed somewhere inside 180 degrees on a particular side of the invisible line of a shot containing two people filmed in sequence. If the camera crosses the line, confusion results for the film viewers, because it makes it look like the people are switching places as one watches the film.
The negative of a film that is edited. It is cut in relation to a picture and built into rolls A and B to take into consideration invisible splices, immediate changes in regard to the timing of fades and lights, and does not need opticals as it dissolves. Odd numbered shots will be contained in the A roll, and a black leader will be put in place of any missing shots. Even numbered shots will be contained in the B roll, along with black leader where all the shots are on the A roll. The negative passes through the contact printer three times. Each pass will be for either the A roll, the B roll or for the soundtrack. The print is only developed once the elements have been exposed onto print stock.
Also known as the American Standards Association – the group that first standardized the ratio of film speed measurement. It refers to a particular kind of film’s sensitivity to light; the number is specific to each film to measure Film Speed which is the same as I.E. and I.S.O.
Also known as Full Academy Aperture. This is a full frame that is exposed by the camera. It is used in 35mm with an aspect ratio of 1.33. There exists a mask in the projector’s gate that allows the changing of the aspect ratio to 1.85 or 1.66 when the film is projected. This crops the bottom and top of the image. Older films should be projected without the mask because they were never intended to be masked in the first place.
Also known as S.M.P.T.E. leader. Counting from 8 to 3 and then counting with one frame of two, this is the standard countdown leader. At the end of the count there is a single frame beep on the soundtrack. It is used by the lab in order to align the sound at the start of the film, as well as for the projectionist to turn on the lamp at the right time without missing the start of the film.
A way of making a wide screen image with standard film. It uses a particular type of lens on a projector and camera that compresses an image’s width exposed on a film that is then expanded once projected.
The very first print created by the A&B Rolls made with the optical track. Sound and picture are brought together for the first time on the same piece of print stock. If one is not satisfied with the timing of the print’s results, it is called the “First Answer Print.” And then the print can be done again to correct any mistakes. The second print would be called the, “Second Answer Print,” and the third the, “Third Answer Print” ….etc
A handy wooden box used to raise equipment or for a camera operator to stand on if need be. There are different sizes of apple boxes, including half apples and quarter apples. Sometimes they are used as seats.
The ratio of the frame. Usually aspect ratios are shortened to remove the “- to 1” because they assume the ratio will always be in relation to 1. So a ratio of “1.85 to 1” is just known as “1.85.” A squarish image is taken by cameras in 16mm and 35mm with an aspect ratio of 1.33. In 35mm, this ratio is called the Academy Aperture. Frequently in 35mm the image is shot with this ratio and then masked in the projector, which will then create a wider image. In the USA, this is 1.85, and in Europe this is 1.66.
The term refers to dubbing that is completed as a substitution for or as an addition for location sound. Sometimes filmers prefer to use the term perhaps because it sheds light away from the fact that any dubbing was down when the short-hand of it is used in the credits – A.D.R.
A phrase said to the person holding the slate to signify he/she should strike the sticks together.
A phrase used negatively against someone who is deemed to have done something inappropriately in regard to their job.
The process of rewinding the film in a camera in order to create the shot for double exposure.
A stripe that stops warping from developing; it is used on 35mm strip mag stock as well as super-8 sound film.
A type of blinder used on either side of a light in order to prevent light from radiating in several different directions. Frequently gloves are worn to adjust them because of the heat generated from them.
A cozy wrapped around a camera in order to lessen the amount of camera noise; they are not much help on cameras that are very noisy to begin with, but they can be handy on decent cameras that need just a little help in reducing their noise. The term stems from blankets used to warm horses.
A translucent strip that is perforated; emulsion is adhered onto the base. Both items make up a piece of film.
A kind of lens mount that is often paired with heavy lenses. They can be joined to a camera without the use of any locking. They can come in handy when a quick change of a lense is called for – as opposed to a screw-mount lense which takes longer to take on and off.
A well-chosen selection of pairing a timing light with most of the footage of a film by the timer.
Also known as Black Emulsion Leader. It is an opaque black film used by a negative cutter when he/she is getting A&B rolls ready. Plastic leader cannot be used for A&B rolls because it cannot be cement spliced like an emulsion leader can be. Not all black pieces of film are the same; the more opaque it is, the better.
A fiberglass housing that holds a noisy camera; the house makes possible the use of the camera for sync sound filming without the addition of all the racket.
A camera designed to contain internal soundproofing – it does need an external blimp to prevent noise issuing from the camera. Shorthand for a camera that is internally blimped is, “BL.”
Colorlab in Rockville, Maryland coined this term to refer to a reduction print that is created from super 16mm to regular 16mm. It works as a substitute for pricier processes of blowing up super 16mm to 35mm. One would assume that the term blow down is the opposite of the term blow up, but actually the term reduction print is used instead.
Going from one gauge to another in film in order to optically expand the film, such as going from 16mm to 35mm. A reduction print (see also blow down) is just the opposite, such as going from 35mm to 16mm to reduce the optical enlargement.
A type of 16mm non-sync camera created by the Paillard Company in Switzerland. Generally, when a person refers to a Bolex camera, they are referring to a reflex spring-would model (like a Rex-4). However, there exist several different kinds of Bolex cameras. Some of them, for example, may be spring-wound, motor-driven, reflex or non-reflex.
A card, either silver or white, that is used to create soft indirect lighting on a subject matter. The card allows light to bounce of itself and onto the subject matter, creating a delicate atmosphere. Sometimes they are used to create soft shadow areas or a soft brightening on an area. Frequently the cards are used outside because they do not need any electrical power to work. Also known as a reflector card.
Filming a shot many times using various f-stops to obtain the ideal shot. Sometimes this method is used to shoot titles. Smart camera operators will allow for a few frames of black between each of these shots to let the editor known when one shot starts and another ends.
A type of lens with a screw mount. It is frequently used on small 16mm cameras.
A kind of light stand that contains legs that are fixed and have the ability to extend outward or together when they are not being used. Frequently they come along with an arm. A C Stand usually holds a flag.
An abbreviation for color temperature blue. Color correction gels are utilized in lighting in order to change the temperature of the color from tungsten to daylight; the gels come in different measurements of quarter blue, full blue, and half blue.
An abbreviation for color temperature orange. Color correction gels are utilized in lighting to change the temperature of the color from daylight to tungsten; the gels come in different measurements of full orange, half orange, and quarter orange.
A somewhat old school method of sync sound shooting. It involves running a cable from a Pilottone generator from a camera to a tape recorder.
Camera noise that is heard when a camera is on. Every camera will generate some noise, which is why a barney is often used.
A type of paperwork that goes along with each camera roll. Each camera roll has one camera reporter. The reports may be used to share specific timing concerns with the lab. Reports are important to solve problems with the footage because they allow for a written log of the coverage that is very helpful to the timers and editors to prevent any confusion as they handle the footage.
Every roll of film shot becomes a camera roll. Numbers are used on each roll to clarify its content. The standard notation is to use the abbreviation of C.R. and then put the number of the roll. A lab puts the camera rolls together and prints them in the correct order. This allows for an organized way to go about editing the film later.
Another word for film. Sometimes it is called camera stock so people do not confuse it with print stock.
A type of cloth tape that is specially made for use on film shoots. It is made so no residue is left on the camera. The tape is usually an inch in width and white. Frequently people write on the tape with permanent markers to label magazines with the camera roll number and the emulsion type. Gaffer’s tape is a similar kind of tape and often they are used interchangeably.
A specific kind of splice that negative cutters frequently use. It involves the overlap of two pieces of film joined together with film cement.
A black bag with two compartments that contains elasticized arm holes on each side and a zipper on an end. The bag was designed to load film into magazines.
A term referring to a technique used in creating films that involves altering perspectives and angles to create a better composition for shots other than the original shot taken of a scene. Frequently the method is employed to hide either props or actors not in the correct position. Something can be cheated “into” a shot or “out of” a shot.
A print created from an optical or inter-negative that is used to double-check the quality of an effect.
The term refers to tiny vertical scratches on film rolls that occur from when a film’s end is pulled to make the roll taunt. Dust currently on the film will make a tiny scratch. Cinching may happen if there is excessive drag on the supply during the rewinding process.
A kind of lighting fixture used in films that is made to hold a screw-in light bulb; sometimes it also contains an aluminum reflector dish. The light is mounted with a spring clamp on one side of an open door.
Two sticks struck against each other to signify a sync sound take. Also known as the Slate or Clap Board.
A kind of magazine that contains two compartments placed right next to each other. They contain the supply and take up rolls that are mounted on the same axle on each of its ends.
Numbers that are ink-on that are frequently placed on a mag track or workprint after syncing. They allow for the correct alignment of sound and picture during the editing process. Sometimes they are also used for general assembling of the film footage. They are often confused with Latent Edge Numbers.
The amount of color in light. Film footage is far more sensitive to changes in color temperature than the human eye is. The scientist Lord Kelvin created the scale that color temperature in film is measure by.
A term referring to the various versions of a film made during the editing process. Usually dates are used to organize them. They are used on large production films to ensure that all the various editing departments are each using the correct conformation.
A term referring to a negative cutter’s pairing of a workprint to the original.
A way in which a lab replicates film. The print is created on a Contact Printer machine; the unexposed print stock and original film are attached together. As one emulsion is pressed against the other’s emulsion, they are sped by a light radiating through the original which then exposes the print stock with the same picture. There are a few kinds of contact prints, including answer prints, release prints, and workprints. In addition to contact printing, there exists optical printing which involves either creating a reduction print or making a blow up.
Going smoothly from one shot of detail to another shot in a film scene using physical elements rather than choices in coverage. It can be done in a number of ways, including through the position of props, through lighting choices, through actor’s costumers or through the actors themselves.
A flat board filled with holes that makes shadow patterns if placed in front of a light.
A hub made of plastic that functions as a means to hold film minus the reel. It comes in different sizes. Small cores are 2 inches and large cores are 3 inches. A 2 inch core is often referred to as a camera core.
A term used to explain the structure of breaking down a script into the many shots that permit a scene to be cut together. Coverage covers the way in which the scenes will work together cohesively. However, it does not cover the ways in which each scene will be shot in an aesthetic manner that is appropriate in order for the scenes to work together.
A label attached to a film can once it is turned into a lab if the roll ended during an essential shot of a scene. It is a precautionary label that lets the lab know to make sure to go to the very last frame in the footage.
Also known as a “cross mod.” It is a test the mixing house does along with a lab to ensure the optical track is properly exposed and developed; the test is done to make sure there is the best sound quality possible.
A method frequently used by still photographers that involves color reversal film stock that is developed as a negative. If a positive print is struck from this negative, unique vivid colors will result.
A method of recording sync sound; it involves running a camera at an appropriate speed using a quartz crystal run motor (the quartz is similar to the one inserted into a quartz watch). A tape recorder records its pilottone through the use of an internal quartz crystal pilottone generator.
A guide for the mixer to follow in order to find the sounds on the tracks during the mix. Cue sheets are organized as a grid; every track creates a column and time following rows that are measured in 35mm film footage. If the footage is 16mm, one needs to change the footage to 35mm.
A phrase used by a director to signify the end of the filming of a shot. The term cut 1 also refers to shots at the frame-line or place where the shots are separated. The term may also refer to final work of editing a film that is known as “the edit” or “the cut.”
A type of shot that cuts away from action going on to focus on something else – like a landscape or a detail of something. Used appropriately with logic in mind, it can be a useful shot to help the film editor in a difficult break in coverage or continuity.
A term referring to the workprint prior it being edited. The term originated from the practice of some labs having the workprint finished the same day it was dropped off by a client. Sometimes it is also known as rushes.
The color temperature of daylight; on a color temperature scale daylight is 5,400K. Exterior shooting requires color film to be balanced for daylight so the resulting image will not be bluish. Used in interiors, daylight balanced film will make an image take on an orange color.
A spool made of aluminum that holds 100 feet of film footage. The spool is painted black and features opaque solid sides that are necessary to guard the film from exposure when the camera is loaded in daylight. The term comes from the idea that the film has the ability to be loaded inside the camera without the use of complete darkness (to keep the film from being exposed obviously). There are 400 foot daylight spools as well; however, they are not often utilized because they are not very compatible with a magazine.
Depth of field refers to the area in focus in front of and behind a plane that is increased as an iris becomes smaller. The longer a lens is, the less the depth of field is and vice versa. It does not spread out in a balanced manner; rather, an area is around 2/3 behind the plane of focus and 1/3 in front of it. It is best to use a depth of field table in order to help take into consideration all the variables that determines the depth of field. Tables can be found in the American Cinematographer’s Manual.
A type of filter placed over a camera lens to create a gentle focus effect. The term diffusion may also refer to a sheet of material put on a movie light in order to create softer shadows.
A section of the view-finding system of a camera; it can be altered to take into consideration a person’s eyesight which allows a person to view the ground-glass with clarity.
The movement between two film shots; while one is fading out, the other is at the same time fading in. They are created at the labs during the printing phase. However, they were gotten ready by the negative cutter. Dissolves completed in a lab can only be done in set amounts, such as 48 frames or 24 frames.
A type of shot that involves a camera positioned by a dolly that changes position during the filming of a scene. Sometimes it is referred to as a tracking shot.
A double exposure happens when exposed film is re-shot. Another image is thus on top of the first shot. Many exposures can be taken. However, it is not correct to refer to it as a “triple exposure or “quadruple exposure.” Instead, one might say “three double exposures” or “six double exposures.”
16mm that contains a row of perforations that follow both sides of the film.
In regard to 35mm, a double reel is made up of two single reels that are attached together. To distinguish double reels from single reels, labeling such as 1 A/B, 2 A/B, 3 A/B, 4 A/B…etc is used. The biggest double reel is 2,000 feet.
A term relating to the idea that picture and sound are two different elements that are recorded separately, and edited or projected at the same time. Both 35mm and 16mm utilize the double system. In the double system, a tape recorder records the sound, and a camera takes the picture. However, the end result becomes a single system as the two elements of picture and sound are brought together to create the same piece of print stock.
A type of projector that was made to play a mag track in sync and to project a workprint.
Recording the dialogue of a script inside a sound studio; this happens after the film scenes are shot. The actors of the film watch the film in order to move their lips to the same time as the footage.
A positive copy of a positive or a negative copy of a negative. It is created in the reversal process.
A diagonal viewpoint of a scene by the camera. It is also known as a canted angle.
An abbreviation for edit decision list. A negative cutter uses it when the filmer cuts digitally in order to stay true to the original without the aid of the workprint.
The exposure over a film’s edge from direct light. Often it is due from light leak that happens when a camera door is not taped shut. Sometimes it gets outside or in a frame and can influence the visibility of the latent edge numbers.
A workbench that includes rewinds that are joined to it. Frequently a built-in light table is placed at its center.
A series of sync marks on sound and picture that pair up on the same frame. It can be helpful to use the mark E.S. when labeling in order to let others or oneself known it is an editorial sync mark. It should not be confused with a printer’s sync – which involves sound and picture that are displaced.
A lay of silver that is adhered to the base. When it is exposed and then developed, emulsion makes an image through the silver areas; the areas prevent light from coming through, and the clear areas permit the light to come through.
A sequence of numbers on a film that start after the emulsion type. Once a film is created, every batch receives a number so one can shoot a single sequence with any one of the batches. Combing batches in the past was more difficult because frequently the emulsion batches could be “off” which of course affected the visible effect in the film. However, mixing emulsion batches is not such a bad thing nowadays because emulsion batches have become more consistent. However, they can still be a little off today. The ideal way is to shoot a single sequence with one particular batch.
A term that refers to the make-up of a film’s emulsion. An emulsion may be designed to be slow, grainy, fine, full of color, white and black, fast, tungsten….etc. Each emulsion’s type is signified by a number. For instance, Fuji uses 250D to represent that the film contains an emulsion that is daylight balanced film with an exposure index of 250. Certain emulsion types are more desirable than others based upon one’s end purpose of the film. It is often best to stick to one emulsion type when shooting a single unbroken sequence.
A kind of lamp used in a projector that plays optical sound. The project plays a track by putting it through the exciter lamp (a photo-electric cell that is sensitive to light).
A number that refers to the sensitivity of a light to a specific kind of film. It measures film speed. Each film can/box contains an E.I. number (same as A.S.A and I.S.O on a light meter).
Hollow tubes of metal mounted in the middle of the lens and camera that come in varying lengths that can be combined together. They can be used on a long lens to take very close shots. When one uses an extension tube, he/she should realize it cannot be used with a wide lens, and some light is absorbed if it is used as an extension tube.
The term refers to the direction an actor needs to look at off-screen in order to pair the shot with a reverse angle or P.O.V. shot. Often times an actor is given something in particular to look at off-screen to ensure the direction they are looking in is correct.
A scale that measures the size of the opening of the iris on a camera’s lens. When one opens the iris wider, more light is allowed to expose the film. Closing the iris permits a less amount of light to enter the camera. The smaller the number of the f-stop, the wider is the opening of the iris (and vice versa). A standard f-stop scale is 1.4 - 2 - 2.8 - 4 - 5.6 - 8 - 11 - 16 – 22.
Moving from a shot into blackness; the image of the film gradually fades into darkness is called a fade out. A fade in is the term for when the darkness becomes brighter and brighter and the image comes into view. They are created in a lab during the printing phase. However, negative cutters prepar them beforehand by cutting an overlap of black into the A&B rolls. Fades made in the labs only come in set amounts, such as 48 frames.
A scrap film that is usually used to ensure a sound track runs the same length as the picture; sometimes there may not be any sound, but the track still needs to be the same length. Filler is often a print that has the emulsion removed from along its center.
A type of liquid that melts and adheres together two separate pieces of film.
The plane of depth from a film’s lens inside the camera. The plane marks the point where the distances on the focusing ring are measured. It is marked on the exterior of the camera with a mark that resembles the planet Saturn turned sideways.
The measurement of the sensitivity of light needed for the necessary exposure of a particular film stock. It is mainly the result of the size of the silver halides within the emulsion. The standard rule is that the bigger the grain, the less light becomes necessary for exposure. Most of the time film stocks are referred to as being slow or fast. A slow film contains tinier grains and it needs more light. And fast film contains bigger grains and requires less light.
A tinted piece of plastic or glass that is positioned in front of or behind a lens in a filter holder. It fuctions as a means to alter the color appearance of the shot. They can be used to change tungsten balanced film for use in broad daylight or the other way around. Sometimes they are used for aesthetic purposes.
The term may refer to a big black piece of cloth that is placed on a frame in order to remove light from a portion of the composition. The term may also refer to a little piece of tape that is adhered to a shot in a roll in a cutting room. It is used as a bookmark. It sticks out of a roll’s side and makes finding particular shots easy.
The term flare may refer to the irregular pattern of direct light washing out the start and end of a roll on daylight spools. The term may also refer to lens flare. Lens flare results when a lens is hit by light which causes the whole image to be fogged. Lens flare can be prevented by flagging the lens.
The term flash frame may refer to a single frame that is totally blank between two shots. Flash frame happens if the camera is stopped while its gate is open which permits for an extended amount of exposure time on a particular single frame. Sometimes flash frames can be useful in the editing room if used between shots; it allows a person to easily know when a shot ends and another begins. The term may also refer to the first couple overexposed frames at the start or end of a shot as a result of the camera requiring more time to get up to speed.
A machine used for editing that is similar to a desk containing a screen at its center. The film rests on plates that are threaded in the middle section that contains transports for the sound and picture.
A cloth bounce card that is put on a bendable ring that can be folded up to take up less room when it is not being used.
The view that a lens contains, whether it be a narrow view or a wide view. Bigger numbers on a focal length signify a narrower view, and smaller numbers signify a wider view.
Recording during the post-production process any custom sound effects. It is done in the same process that dialogue is dubbed. Foley is the name of the man who invented the process.
A shot that involves altering the focus of the camera during the shooting process to pair up with the action of the subject matter.
Foot candle refers to the measurement of light. The term originated from exactly what its title is; the light of one candle that is one foot away is one foot candle. Light meters convert foot candle numbers into an f-stop measurement. However, one should realize that there exists several kind of film speeds. Thus, using foot candles as a reference point is not necessary recommended because f-stops may not correspond exactly to any given number of foot candles since there are so many film speeds.
Footage may refer to either the amount of film that a person has shot in a given time period, or it may refer to all of the film footage that has been exposed.
Any single image on a piece of film; each second of film footage contains twenty-four frames.
Extra frames located at the end and start of each shot of footage. The number of frame handles changes from each application. In general, they are used to get original material ready for optical printing. For instance, in optical printing, frame handles can be used to prevent printed-in dirt that often shows up next to a splice where bits of film cement have an opportunity to flake off.
A tiny amount of space the in the middle of frames. Shots are cut and joined at a frame line.
A metal black flag joined to the camera with an arm that can be altered into various positions. It functions as a means to shade a camera’s lens from light that can cause flare.
The term fullcoat refers to mag stock containing a layer of oxide that spreads all over one side. One can purchase 35mm in either stripe or fullcoat. 16mm mag only comes fullcoat. Stripe is less expensive than fullcoat. In regard to 35mm, one might purchase the fullcoat over stripe because the fullcoat can be used to record many tracks.
A type of cloth tape that is used on particular film shoots. Generally, gaffer’s tape is either silver or black and is two inches in width. It is used instead of duct tape because it does not leave any residue after it is peeled off.
A camera or projector opening that resides behind the lens. On a camera it allows a single frame to be exposed; on a projector it allows the single frame to be projected.
The gauge is the width measurement of a film format. Examples of gauges are 35mm and 16mm.
A big sheet of clear tinted plastic; it functions as a filter for a movie light or as a window covering. The sheets can be purchased in several different colors. This is one type of gel. The other type of gel can change one color temperature to another color temperature
The surface of etched glass in a camera’s view-finding system. The groundglass and film plane are located the same distance from the camera lens.
An effect that happens when an image’s bright regions bleed into the edges of the darker regions. This happens when the light passes through the emulsion layer and reflects off the base of the film. This exposes the emulsion on the side right next to it. Some companies will make film that has a black anti-halation surface coat on its edge.
A gas that is inside the lamp of a Quartz light. The gas extends the life of the tungsten filament. Frequently Quartz lights are also referred to as Halogen Lights.
Holding a camera in place by the cameraperson while shooting film, rather than using a tripod.
The start of a roll or shot. The term may also refer to a round clamp that works in addition with an arm on a C Stand. A head may also refer to a tripod head.
The area in-between a subject’s head and a frame’s top. It is important to make the headroom not too much or too little. The cameraperson needs to take into account any cropping that may occur later on the sides and top of the footage.
Abbreviation for Halogen Metal Incandescence. It is a kind of light that features powerful, efficient and quite bright lights. They can be used in mixed lighting conditions because they are balanced for the color temperature of daylight. The negative side of using HMI is that the lights are heavy, expensive and should only be used with a crystal sync camera.
Labs will not time a film when one asks for “house lights” for a print. The print is completed minus color correction and exposure. In general, they range in the center of the printing scale: 25 – 25 – 25.
The distance set on a focusing ring of the lens that best uses the depth of field available. Distances are listed out on depth of field charts, as well as lay out the area of focus at various f-stops. A subject is not essential to focus on at this distance.
An abbreviation for international standards organization. It means the same thing as I.E. and A.S.A. Sometimes the I.S.O. abbreviation is placed on a light meter.
A reading that measures the quantity of light striking a subject. One makes a reading with a light meter that contains a white half sphere that stands in for the subject. The sphere is directed towards the camera so the light striking the subject is also striking the sphere. Another kind of light reading is called reflective light reading.
A very close shot of some detail in a scene. It is similar to a cutaway shot, but instead of distancing away from the scene, one moves in.
Multiple mechanisms that contain motors that run in sync are termed “interlocked.” A tape recorder and a sync sound camera do not run interlocked. A tape recorder’s motor is not running in sync with the camera motor, because a tape recorder is recording pilottone.
A copy of a film that is put on fine-grained stock. An internegative creates far more prints than is practical to make from A&B rolls.
A mechanism that is joined to a camera for shooting single exposures. It is similar to an animation motor. However, it has the ability to expose single frames automatically. (This is the method of time lapse photography.)
A valve is inside the lens that dictates the degree of light that can go through it. When one opens an iris, more light has the opportunity to come through the lens. And when one closes the iris, less light can pass through it. The amount at which an iris is closed or opened is set in f-stops. Some lenses also have t-stops.
Two shots sharing similarities that are cut together with a jump in time, camera position or continuity.
“K” may refer to kilowatts or refer to an abbreviation for Kelvin (like 5,400K for daylight). In relation to kilowatts, K is used when referring to quartz lights or HMIs (to check the amount of the brightness in relation to the consumption of power). 1 Kilowatt is made up of 1,000 Watts.
Kelvin is a term taken from the name of the scientist Lord Kelvin; he invented the color temperature scale.
An abbreviation for last frame action. It is important to include on the cue sheet for the individuals responsible for mixing the film.
A big roll created from camera rolls. They are attached together for printing by a lab. The rolls go up to around 1,000 feet.
Latent Edge Numbers are numbers that are placed over a film’s edge between the perf in 16mm or on the far side of in 35mm. They exist in order to help the negative cutter align up shots during the conforming of the negative. Sometimes they are referred to as latent edge numbers rather then just edge numbers to separate them from ink-on code numbers that are sometimes referred to as edge numbers.
The amount that a particular film stock can withstand over-exposure or under-exposure. For example, color negative has a greater degree of latitude than reversal film.
Lens flare occurs when a lens is struck by light which causes an image to be totally fogged. It can be prevented by flagging the lens.
Light leak is light that radiates into a camera that in turn creates patches of fog on the image. It usually happens near the camera door or at the location of the joining of the magazine to the camera body. Simply putting camera tape around the camera door will prevent light leak.
Also known as production sound. Location sound is any kind of room tone or wild track recorded at the shoot.
The last cut of a film; no more alterations will occur in a picture after a locked cut.
A type of shot that is taken with the tilt and pan releases on a tightened tripod; it is done so the camera cannot shift its position. Locked down shots are useful when a particular effect is called for – such as making an actor suddenly vanish in a shot. Locking the shot ensures the camera will not move from one cut to another.
A type of lens containing a focal length that magnifies views of small areas or objects. For a lens to be considered a long lens, it must have a focal length bigger than 50mm in 35mm, or 25mm in 16mm.
Excess film below and above the camera’s gate; it permits movement from the continuous motion of the take-up and supply rollers to the intermittent motion happening at the gate. The term may also refer to a little magnifier that is a helpful tool used in the editing room. Sometimes the term may refer to dubbing.
A term that relates to dubbing. Film is on a loop in order to allow an actor a couple tries at a line. Looping is also known as A.D.R.
An abbreviation for music and effects. An M&E track is created after a mix for a large production. It is used if a film is dubbed into more than one language. The track makes it possible for a one-time creation of the music and effects section of the film.
An abbreviation for “Mit Out Sound.” It refers to a film, sequence or shot that is taken minus the sound (the sound is added at a later time). The term comes from a Hollywood story of a German director. He requested that a shot be filmed “mit out sound.” And his camera assistant responded to his directions by writing “M.O.S.” down on a slate.
A type of lens that allows the cameraperson to get very close details of an object. Using macro causes the distances on the focusing ring to no longer be applicable.
Mag Stock is a section of film surfaced with an emulsion of magnetic oxide rather than silver halides. It is the same size as film and contains perforations. All sound is moved to mag stock during the editing process that is then passed along an editing machine that pairs it exactly with the picture. One frame of sound is paired with one frame of picture.
A camera will generally have 2-3 magazines attached to it; a magazine holds 1-2 chambers that contain 400 or 1,000 feet of film. The chambers are light-proof.
Clapsticks are struck together to make a sync mark for a film shot. Mark may also refer to tape placed on the floor to show an actor where he/she is suppose to stand.
A single shot that includes the complete scene from its start to the finish. Usually a master shot is filmed and then the rest of the other kinds of shots (close-ups...etc) are then shot later.
A square shade that is placed right over the lens. It is held up by two rods joined to the camera body. Usually the box contains filter holders for the square glass filters that can be useful when one is putting together a matte shot.
Also known as a split screen, matte shots can be completed as opticals. A matte shot is a double exposure that masks off a section of the frame for each exposure, as well as the opposite area for a second exposure.
A method of placing all one’s soundtracks on one soundtrack that contains the right mixture of the sounds at the right equalization, filtering and volumes. The end result is what a person wishes his/her sound to be.
A copy of one’s sound mix that is either on DAT or mag stock. One may need to ask for it in addition to the optical track. Obtaining a copy of the mix on tape will give a superior quality level for transfer to video (as opposed to the optical track). It will also provide a more efficient means of mixing if one needs to do some remixing.
A mechanism that blends the sounds from various sources along with a volume control for each one. The term may also refer to a person whose job it is to sit at the mixing console and determine how the sounds will be mixed; he/she also handles the audio controls and the faders.
A sound studio; a mixing house is a place designed for mixing the sound for films.
The term refers to a standing movioloa. The machine is made by a company called Moviola; the company also creates flat-beds.
The original film used to take the footage in the camera. From the negative, a positive print is created for editing. The negative is organized to pair up with the edited work-print and an answer print. It is used for a finished film’s projection.
The title given to the person responsible for the cutting and assembling of the original negative’s pairing up with the edited workprint. This is then sent to a lab to create the answer print.
A type of camera that provides an image in the viewfinder through a separate lens. Examples of non-reflex cameras are Bell & Howell and older Bolex cameras. These cameras do not contain a “through the lens” view-finding system.
A normal lens is the spot between the widening of the image by the wide-angle lens, and the widening of the image by the telephoto lens. A normal lens is considered to be the 50mm lens in a 35mm, and in 16mm it is considered to be the 25mm lens.
A type of grease used to lubricate the pressure plate. It is coated over the side of the nose by a cameraperson.
The space between the edge of the frame and a person’s face when it is in profile. In general, the space surrounding the subject should be 1/3 behind and 2/3 in front of the subject’s head. It is considered a good thing if there exists excess space in front of the subject’s face (as opposed to behind the person’s head).
A print that is not corrected shot by shot. Instead, the print reveals how all the shots appear in contrast to one another with the same printing lights. It may be helpful to know what changes have occurred in the shots color and exposure.
A re-photographying of a film frame by frame. It provides a means of creating a copy of a film that allows for many more options (as opposed to contact printing); however, the process does lessen the amount of clarity and contrast in the footage in 16mm.
The system utilized by a projector to play back a film print’s sound; the sound is exposed onto the film as a translucent modulating line over black. The track is read by the projector by putting it through an exciter lamp. The voltage of the lamp is then amplified and fed through a speaker to project it.
Creating an optical track is a middle step one does before going from the mix master to the final print. The optical track is photographed on a piece of high contract stock when the mix is finished (by a facility or a lab). The track is a different roll of film than the original negative. It is joined to the picture when a print is struck. One should realize that the optical track remains as an element separate from the A&B rolls – the track is passed into the contract printer at a different time.
Also known as optical effects, opticals are simply effects created through optical printing. Examples of opticals include superimposed titles and transitions. The term “optical” can refer to anything that is optically printed (such as blowing up from from 16mm to 35mm).
A tool used to clean the gate of a camera. It is simply an orange stick that can be purchased at a drug store to clean one’s nails.
Film, reversal, or negative, shot by a camera as opposed to film that is a dupe. One may say “negative” or “original” and they mean the same thing. But saying “original” is the most efficient way to communicate that something is the real deal, and not copied.
Workprint footage that is not put into the edited version of the film. A couple frames or just one single frame are called trims.
Since film is perishable, dyes will change color and the grain will build up over time. The end result is an image that contains less and a foggy appearance. Even if film is refrigerated, the effects of time will take their effect after 2-3 years. Slow films tend to grow foggy in a longer amount of time than faster films. And black and white film lasts a little while longer in quality than color film. However, if one is trying to save a buck or two and does not need the longevity, outdated stock can be bought inexpensively.
Creating slow motion by running the camera faster. The term originated from the time cameras used to be operated by cranking them.
The process of shooting a film scene with more light than the film’s emulsion needs. The result will be an image that does not contain much depth of field and the image will appear too bright. One can alter the image in printing, but the image will contain too much contrast.
Shorthand for point of view shot. It is a shot that is taken from the point of view from one of the characters. It allows the film viewers to see things how an actor is seeing them. The shot is useful to achieve a believable reaction shot.
The horizontal movement of a camera along an axis. The move can go from left to right or vice versa. Similar to a dolly shot, a camera turns on an axis (instead of across an area). A pan is not the same thing as a tilt. One should use the word tilt instead of saying something like, “pan up.”
A thin roll of tape. It tapes down a film’s ends when one is editing. Paper tape is not the same thing as splicing tape, and it should not be put on raw stock.
A method of cutting between a couple of scenes or stories that are happening at the same time.
Shorthand for perforations. Perforations are the sprocket holes on a section of film footage.
A powerful screw-in light bulb. It is used along with a clamp light fixture and ranges from 250 watts to 500 watts.
A round, rather hefty disc that contains a lighting stud. A pigeon assists to position a light on the floor. It can go a lot lower than what a stand can normally be positioned to do. Basically, a pigeon works like a hi hat – but for lights.
A 60 Hz signal reference that is used for sync sound filming (50 Hz in Europe). It is recorded on an audio tape in order to make possible transfer to magazine exactly at sound speed.
A plastic leader is placed at the tail and head of a print. It is longer-lasting than emulsion leader and cheaper. One determent is that a plastic leader cannot be cement spliced and therefore cannot be used for the negative.
A long-lasting kind of film that is very difficult to rip. It takes skill and practice to splice polyester base. It cannot be used as original material, because it cannot be cement spliced. The benefit of polyester base is that it lasts awhile and can tolerate usage well – a fact that lends it well to release prints.
A photo flood-related kind of bulb. It is included within a shot. Sometimes the term is used instead of photo flood; however, practical refers in particular to a light placed within the shot.
Excess time at the start of a sound take in order to take into account the slow, lock-up time of a few post production time code mechanisms.
A section of a camera’s internal system. It is positioned on the side of the film away from the gate. Spring-loaded and smooth, the plate supports the film on the film plane. It works as a kind of brake and assists to keep the film steady as the film is exposed.
A single focal length, telephoto, normal or wide lens (unlike a zoom lens that contains a variable focal length). Prime lens are purchased in a set of various focal lengths; they are quicker, clearer and can magnify things closer than a zoom lens can.
A copy of the original film footage. A print is generally created through contact printing.
The film footage a lab uses to create prints (copies). Generally, print stock is of a longer pitch than camera stock so it can be placed right up along the camera stock on the printing device. Camera stock is faster than print stock (print stock has an A.S.A. of around 12),
A pull down is done in order to line up the sound with a video transfer of picture if one needs to transfer sync sound to video. The process involves the transfer of sound slowed from the speed of the film. There are 24 film frames/second and 29.97 video frames/second. This correlates to 23.98 film frames/second.
A kind of processing that involves developing the film for a shorter amount of time than usual in order to accommodate for planed overexposure of the film.
Pull up refers to the method of placing the sound 26 frames in front of the picture when creating a print. The term may also refer to the transfer of the sound from video sped up from video speed of 29.97 video frames/second to 24 film frames/second. This transfer has to be completed if the optical track is created after having mixed in video. The term may also refer to the transfer of the first 26 frames of sound on a reel. The frames are spliced on the sound of the previous real; this is done to prevent loss of sound once the film is printed with the sound pulled up. When the reels are attached together, 26 frames of the sound are removed.
A segment of a camera’s movement that involves advancing the footage from an exposed frame to the following unexposed frame; this happens when the shutter of the camera is shut.
A kind of processing that involves developing film for an extended amount of time in order to accommodate for planned underexposure. Individual scenes cannot be pushed, only complete rolls can be pushed.
A quartz light is a kind of light that is quite bright. Inside its quartz envelope is a tungsten filament. When in use, quartz lights can become very hot. If oil from one’s hands gets on the bulb, the bulb may blister and explode; obviously, it is never a good idea to touch the bulb with one’s fingers. The color temperature of the light is usually 3,200K. Also known as a tungsten or halogen light.
A device used for latching for fast mounting and removal of a camera from a tripod.
A type of shot that involves the changing of the focus during shooting. The shot is completed in order to transition from one object of interest to another (rather than a follow focus shot that is done to keep something in focus).
A brand of Telecine machines; in general it is well-known and well-liked. Sometimes the term telecine is used instead of rank.
The term refers to a shot of an actor looking off screen. A reaction shoot may be used to show a reaction immediately after a P.O.V. shot, or to lead into a P.O.V. shot. The term may also refer to a shot of an actor that is paying attention and reacting to what another actor is saying.
Film that was opened but never used. Recans are loaded into a magazine and never shot; they are so termed because they are loaded back in the film can and thus called “re-cans.”
A film’s optical reduction that goes from a one particular gauge to another. Going from 35mm to 16mm is an example of a reduction print.
A spool made out of plastic or metal designed to hold film for editing or projection. The term may also relate to a reel of one thousand feet of film in 35mm. A reel is also called a single reel.
A measure of the amount of light that bounces of a subject; it is taken with a light meter that contains a honey-comb grid. One directs the meter at a subject in order to read the light bouncing from the subject matter and nothing else. Another kind of reading that is possible is called an incident light reading.
A card, either silver or white, that is used to create soft indirect lighting on a subject matter. The card allows light to bounce of itself and onto the subject matter, creating a delicate atmosphere. Sometimes they are used to create soft shadow areas or a soft brightening on an area. Frequently the cards are used outside because they do not need any electrical power to work. Also known as a bounce card.
A type of view-finding system in a camera; it involves seeing an image in the viewfinder that is seen through the very same lens taking the photograph of the film’s image.
The way in a frame aligns with the next frame. Poor registration can make an image that will bobble once it is projected on the screen. Like cameras, projectors also have registration, so it can be hard to distinguish sometimes what is the culprit for the bobble that may appear on the screen. It is essential to have good registration especially for shots that have special effects; the images in these shots are multi-layered and will draw bad attention if the registration is not good.
A pin that some cameras contain. Examples of such cameras include Éclair and Arriflex. A registration pin works to keep an image steady during exposure.
A type of print created after the approval of the answer print. A release print is struck using the exact timing of the final answer print. It costs less than an answer print, because it is not re-timed. Release prints are the ones movie theatres have access to. The term comes from the fact that the print is “released” to them.
A kind of film and processing method that creates a positive original. It is similar to the slide film and processing used in still photography.
A shot that involves a previous shot’s opposite side. It may involve an actor coming and leaving through an entrance, a reaction shot, a P.O.V. shot, or the cutting between of two actors discussing something. It is preferable that a reverse shot be on the same side of the 180 degree line to keep things consistent for the film viewers.
A mechanism used to wind film; it is made up of a spindle and crank to mount a single or multiple reels. Usually it is mounted on either side of an editing bench.
A kind of tape splicer; it comes in two models that use perforated splicing tape. One type of model is used for slanted cuts for sound. Another type of model is used for straight cuts for a picture.
A recording that functions as a filler when editing sound; it is the “silence” of a location. A sync sound shoot often finishes with the sound recordist signaling the actors to remain silent for the recording of around thirty seconds of room tone. This is because all places are never really silent, and therefore the filler must be particular to a specific location.
A term referring to the film edited between the steps of the film being an assembly and a fine cut.
An unedited work-print returning from the lab. One is usually in a “rush” to ensure that the film came out correctly, and hence the term. Rushes are also known as dailies (so termed because some labs manage to get the job done the same day it was dropped off).
A bag made of cloth that contains two chambers for sand; the bag is placed over the legs of a light-stand to lend it some weight for greater stability.
A scene is a single film shot. The term “sequence” is used when referring to a number of film shots. Sometimes “scene” is used to refer to a number of shots, but it is better to say “sequence” in order to avoid any confusion.
A scratch may occur on the base or on the emulsion. Damage to the film is unfixable if the scratch is made on the emulsion. Scratching the base can be fixed with wet gate printing.
A mix along with some sound correction completed prior to the final mix. A scratch mix is done to screen the film along with the correct use of the sounds to analyze if any alterations need to be done. A scratch mix is usually only completed on big productions because producing one can be expensive.
A test done to ensure that the magazines or the camera are not scratching the film. The test is completed prior to shooting by running a roll of film 1-2 feet and analyzing the film as it comes out.
A sync recording that causes the sound information to be useless to anybody, except for dubbing actor voices, or for the sound editor to use the information for sound references.
A phrase called out by the cameraperson to signal to the person with the slate to mark the shot a second time based on the condition that the clapper on the slate could not be seen the first time the shot was being marked.
Selects are the shots separated from all the other shots prior to starting the editing process in order to make the process more efficient.
A brand name permanent felt-tipped marker. Sharpies are used to label exposed rolls.
The proportion of the quantity of film shot in relation to the running time of the completed film. For example, a 4 minute film that one shot 40 minutes of footage would be said to have a shooting ratio of 10 to 1.
The remainder of a roll of film that is unexposed in a magazine that is clipped and put into a can for future use. In order to be called a short-end, the film has to be less than four hundred feet.
The term given to exposed film starting from the moment the camera starts to when it stops. A shot is also known as a “scene.”
A silent camera is the term given to a type of noisy camera that can only be used for scenes that do not require sound (because it is so noisy).
The recording, editing or projecting of picture and sound on the same piece of film, as opposed to other kinds of cameras that may record them separately. Using a single system brings along with it a few editing disadvantages. For this reason, it is normal to use a double system for shooting and editing.
A black and white dupe print of the work-print that is not timed. A slop print does not contain splices, and hence is used for projection in a sound mix since the film cannot go out of sync.
A light containing a surface built into it that functions as a bounce card. The end result is a gentle, soft light on the subject matter.
A type of blanket placed on the camera to lessen the camera’s noise. It is the same as a quilted mover’s blanket.
A device that is mounted on a bracket that snaps on a synchronizer; it is plugged into the squawk box. It is used for reading magazine stock.
A cylinder made of metal that contains a hole in its center and a plate at its end. The spacer is used to put reels at equal intervals as the gangs of a synchronizer.
This term is called out to signal that the cameras are now rolling. The term originated from the time when it took a little while for some equipment to get up to speed.
A kind of clear tape that is used to splice film. Spicing tape may be purchased in two forms, perforated or un-perforated. The un-perforated version is used with a Guillotine, and the perforated version is used with a Rivas. Transparent tape is used with pictures, whereas opaque white tape is used for sound when splicing.
Small sections of tape positioned along the legs of furniture or a tripod; spikes are used in order to mark their placements so they can be efficiently returned to those same positions later.
A way of attaching two film pieces in order so they can project as a single un-broken piece. A splice may be done in 3 ways, including as a cement splice, as a tape splice and as a ultra-sonic splice. A cement splice is used for the original material, and the tape splice is generally used for editing. When using Polyester base film, the ultra-sonic splice is used.
A reel that can be screwed apart in order to place film on the core between its two halves. The film on the core becomes the film on the reel. One should be careful not to screw the two halves too tightly together, because they may become difficult to separate.
The process of winding a 400 foot roll onto four 100 foot daylight spools in order to use it in a camera that is capable of handling 100 feet of film. The process is done in total darkness so that the roll remains unexposed. The film must be wound totally through in one complete cycle and then spooled down. This ensures that the edge numbers are printed on the correct side and are not printed on the work-print.
A kind of meter used to take reflective light readings with a short telescopic sight. The telescopic sight makes it possible for a person to take precise readings of a detailed area.
A device that includes 3 arms joined to a central hub that in turn is joined to the base of a tripod. A spreader prevents the legs of the tripod from collapsing.
A spring-loaded clamp that attaches to a rewind in order to turn multiple reels together.
A roller’s teeth that are capable of intersecting with the perforations in film. Sprocket holes are the same thing as perf.
A little amplified speaker that is placed on an editing bench to take in sounds from the sound reader.
A type of flatbed brand that is well-known and popular. Sometimes the term flatbed is used instead of Steenbeck.
A streamer is a little speaker positioned on an editing bench that takes in sound from the sound reader; the term originated from the fact that when a streamer is projected, it looks like a streamer trailing over the image screen.
Stripe refers to 35mm magazine stock that includes a stripe of magnetic tape instead of a full coating included on full-coat. A balance stripe is used in stripe in order to stop warping from occurring.
A type of film format that was originally designed for blow up to 35mm. It uses up the place on the film that is normally used for the soundtrack, and uses the area for a wider picture with a single perf 16mm film.
A superimposition is actually the same thing as a double exposure; however, sometimes “superimposition” is used when referring specifically to a double exposure completed through optical printing - such as super-imposed titles for example.
The level at which picture and sound are successfully lined up. If they are out-of-sync, the film can be difficult to watch because the picture will not correspond to the sound that the viewers are hearing. If sound and picture are lined up well, they are said to be “in-sync.” The term sync is applied to many types of picture and sound relationships, including voices, music, and sound effects.
The place in time that the clapsticks strike each other at the start of a shot, and the sound on the soundtrack that happens at this time as well. A sync mark may also refer to the “X” mark placed on a single frame at the start of a reel of picture that lines up with another sync mark on the sound roll. A&B rolls include sync marks at the starting points of their rolls.
When a picture is being shot, the sound that is recorded at the same time as the picture is called sync sound. A crystal or cable sync is used for sync sound in order for things to be lined up correctly and not be out-of-sync. Sometimes the term is referred to as “lip sync” because the footage may include a number of people speaking.
A device used in the editing room for assembling, logging, syncing, measuring footage and checking sync. The device includes a center axle along with multiple sprocket wheels (called gangs) that are joined to it. A foot of film is equivalent to one revolution of the synchronizer. Film is clamped into the wheels to the film can be measured with a footage counter. It is a very helpful device because multiple items can be efficiently cut to the same length.
The process of lining up the picture and sound of a film prior to editing a sync sound film. Syncing includes cutting the extra sound that happens between takes. And it includes putting in a filler so the sound and picture are lined up throughout the film.
A few lenses contain t-tops on one side of the aperture ring, and f-stops on the other side. The f-stops are white. A small amount of light can be lost of a lens contains a number of glass elements. The t-stops function in place of f-stops for setting exposure. T-stops are designed to work with the degree of light striking the film (as opposed to finding the amount using math). The t-stop sets the exposure, and the f-stop shows the amount of depth of field one has.
A tail slate is the mark on a shot that occurs at the end of a film rather than the start of the film. Usually the phrase, “Tail Slate!” is called out prior to clapping the slate. This ensures that the person syncing the film understands what is going on. When doing a tail slate, the slate is positioned upside down in order to mark the shot. The upside down position signifies that the mark is completed at the end of the film.
An empty reel used to pick up film on a projector after the film’s action is done.
An empty spool that picks up the film in a camera after the film has been exposed to light.
The lens positioned in front of the camera’s gate on a turret that makes the image on the film.
A way of attaching two pieces of film in order that they will be able to be projected as a single continuous piece of film. Cement splices are used to cut the negative.
A telephoto is similar to a long lens, but it is different in that a telephoto’s focal length is longer than it is physically.
A series of directions that start a take. It often goes something like, “Roll sound!....Roll camera!.......Mark it!.....Action!”
Projector or camera parts that transfer the film at intervals. The rollers after and before the loops, the connecting gears and the pull-down claw all create the movement. Any registration pin and often the shutter are also considered to be part of the movement.
Two hinged sticks joined to a single board. It records a shot’s number and sync point at the start of each scene. The “clap” of the clapstick signals the sync point.
The term may refer to the legs of a tripod, or the tripod itself. The term may also refer to the clapper on the slate.
A tool that harnesses power directly from the mains; it goes past the fuse box and electrical wiring of a filming location.
A tool used to wind film on a core, giving the film a smooth edge. It is usually placed on the right rewind on an editing bench; it is an efficient means of opening and tightening the split reels if one’s intent is to simply rewind a complete roll.
A time lapse occurs when a single frame shooting speeds up the film movement over an extended period of time. Usually it involves a single frame that is shot after a consistent pause.
The title given to a person at the lab who is responsible for going through each film scene and selecting the printing lights.
The title given to the lab’s method of selecting the printing lights for the appropriate exposure and color to create a print. The term “timing” is not what it sounds like, as there is not much to do with actual time.
The lamps of the contact printer used at a lab that are measured on a scale of 1-50 in regard to their brightness. 50 is the brightest, and 1 is the darkest. The darker the light is on the negative, the brighter the print will be. The colors red, green and blue are used in color printing.
A recording of the timing lights and relational footages that is used by a lab to create a print. It is used to go through the film footage and analyze whether or not there is room for any corrections. Corrections that need to be made are written on the timing report (such as scratches…etc).
Tone may refer to a 1,000 Hz sine wave that is placed at the start of a tape to give a steady volume during the transferring of sound. Tone may also refer to the tone of the room.
A shot that involves the placement of a camera on a dolly that is then moved during the filming of a scene. A tracking shot may also be referred to as a dolly shot.
A bin on wheels that includes a lining of a fabric bag. The bin’s top contains a row of pins from which one can hang film during the editing process. A trim bin is not a place for garbage, it is also not a place for trims. Rather, a trim bin is for out-takes and selects.
Often a foot or less, trims are out-takes of a couple frames. In order to stop any trims from getting lost, trims are placed separately from longer out-takes. Usually they are placed in a trim book or in a separate vault box.
The segment of the tripod that includes the tilting device and the pan that the camera is joined to.
Tungsten is 3,200K; it is the color temperature of artificial light on a color temperature scale A tungsten filament is used for quartz lights. Quartz lights burn at 3,200K, which is how the term originated. If one is shooting film inside, one should use color film that is balanced for tungsten light. If this is not done, the resulting image will take on an orange tinge. Similarly, a correction filter should be used for tungsten balanced film when shooting outside so the resulting image will not appear too blue.
A turret is a lens mount that rotates; it provides the opportunity to mount multiple lenses on a camera. This in turn makes it possible to quickly move from one lens to the next. The lens that is in use at the time of shooting a scene is called a “taking lens.”
A cleaning device used at labs that clean negatives before they are transferred to video or before printing. Sound waves are used by the device to get ride of loose dust.
A high-end, rather expensive splicing device that is used to splice polyester base stock.
A term that refers to running the camera at slow speeds, which in term creates fast motion. The term originated from the time one needed to manually crank the camera.
Allowing less light than is needed by the emulsion of the film for correct exposure is called underexposure. The scene will be too dark and if one tries to fix underexposure in printing, the result will be a rather grainy image.
A device containing arms that pick up and supply reels. The film shifts up and around to a screen on the front. Motors are controlled by the foot petals for sound speed and multiple speed viewing.
A motor control that runs a camera or editing device at slower or faster speeds than the sound speed.
A square cardboard box made to contain either 1,000 foot rolls of 16mm, or 1,000 feet of 35mm.
A type of contact printing; the print is created on a printing device that involves film surrounded by a liquid that for temporarily fills-in scratches that may exist on the base. This prevents the scratches from bouncing any light and the scratches from being visible on the print. Usually answer prints are created with a wet gate. Wet gate printing can be more expensive than other kinds of printing.
A wide lens is a type of lens that contains a focal length shorter than 50mm in 35mm, and 25mm in 16mm. It allows for a greater view of a big area.
A motor that moves around but not exactly 24 frames per second; it is not near enough for sync sound. To be wild means that the picture and sound are not lined up properly.
Sound that is often recorded to fill-in the sync takes; it is non-sync sound. The sound is recorded when the camera is not filming a scene.
A positive copy cut during the editing process from the original negative. (A reversal original can also create a workprint.) A negative cutter cuts the original negative to pair up with the workprint for each scene. From the cut negative comes an answer print.
A term that signals that shooting work is finished for the day, for a certain set, or for the entire film project. If one is referring to the final film project work, one would say, “It’s a wrap!” If one were referring to the work for the particular day, one would say, “ Wrap for the day!”
A type of projection lamp that is balanced for daylight and is very bright. It cannot replace an arch lamp or tungsten lamp. Instead, a xenon needs another lamp housing on the projector. It is best with color film to request that a lab create a print that is balanced for xenon since it is balanced for daylight. The print is often referred to as a “5,400 print” because this is the color temperature of daylight.